Volvulus and intussusception
Volvulus refers to a twist in a part of the colon or small intestine. This twisting may eventually cause an obstruction in the intestines. The twisting affects a small loop in the intestines as well as the continuous set of tissue that support it. The symptoms of volvulus are vomiting, constipation, bloody stool and abdominal pain or bloating. When volvulus occurs, the mesentery that supports the affected area is likely to continue getting twisted and may cut blood flow to that part of the intestines. If blood flow is cut off, it may result in fever and abdominal pain, especially if the abdomen is touched. It will eventually lead to ischemia or necrosis. Factors that increase risk of volvulus include intestinal malrotation, which is a congenital disability, an inflamed colon and many more.
Intussusception occurs when a piece of the intestine folds into an adjacent section. It is much more common in the small bowel than the large bowel. The symptoms include recurrent abdominal pain and bloating vomiting, and also a bloody stool. Intussusception also leads to obstruction in the small intestines and complications such as bowel perforation and peritonitis. The folding in intussusception blocks the passage of food or fluids. In addition, it may also cut off blood supply to the affected area in the intestines, and this will eventually lead to a tear in the bowel. Also, the bowel tissue may get infected or stop functioning altogether.
Both these two events cause bowel obstruction, which refers to the mechanical obstruction of the ileum or colon,, and it hinders the normal digestion process. Moreover, both conditions are similar sign and symptoms, which are vomiting, bloating and abdominal pain. Bowel obstruction is the cause of approximately 5 to 14% of cases of severe abdominal pain. Intussusception one of the leading causes of small bowel obstruction while volvulus is the leading cause of significant bowel obstruction
Hepatitis C Virus
Hepatitis C virus, from the family Flaviviridae, is a single-stranded RNA virus with a positive sense, it is approximately 55-65 nm in size. This virus leads to the disease called Hepatitis C as well as some cancers like liver cancer and lymphomas. The liver infection Hepatitis C lacks distinct signs and symptoms; hence many people are not aware that they have it. The virus can spread through blood or fluids of an infected person. Also, the hepatitis C virus has many forms, and each reacts differently to a treatment.
Hepatitis C virus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. More than half the cases are chronic infections, and this led to liver cancer or cirrhosis. The hepatitis C virus does not have a productive cell culture system; hence scholars are not able to fully understand its lifecycle. Chronic infection begins to show because of the weak response from CD4 and CD8+ T-cells. In particular, the persistent infection will occur when these cells fail to prevent viral replication. The virus is not cytopathic. The liver lesions often associated with this infection occur because of a non-specific, locally driven immune response. The lesions then trigger fibrogenesis, which is also impacted by hepatic stellate cells. The virus plays a significant role in developing cirrhosis. However, people with viral co-infections or chronic alcohol consumption are at a much higher risk. HCV also influences hepatocarcinogenesis, but its role remains unknown. Cirrhosis increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (Cancer of the Liver). The HCV infection does not have any noticeable symptoms until the infection has greatly damaged the liver, and this could take decades.
Hepatitis C virus is a hepatotropic RNA virus and is transmitted primarily through the blood. The first test used to diagnose the infection is the screening of antibodies to HCV in the areas that are at risk. Reactive screening results are determined by including serum to cut-off ratio (S/CO) in the screening. The confirmatory tools used are the Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT) which also help to determine the viral load before treatment is initiated. Genotyping is also a valuable tool, and it is used to predict the probability of response as well as to determine the maximum time of therapy in clinical management.
Antiviral therapies are available for people which chronic hepatitis C virus. Health care providers often administer direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA), which provides a virologic cure. In addition, patients get advanced HCV therapeutics which provide considerable health benefits. Prior to treatment, infected people are screened and tested to determine not only the stage of the disease but also the presence of other liver comorbidities such as alcohol use. There are blood tests that measure the quantity of virus in the blood and also categorize the virus’ genotype. Furthers tests are used to determine liver damage such as transient elastography, and liver biopsy. The treatmentsinvolve antiviral medication which helps to clear the virus from the body. In some cases, liver transplantation will be necessary. The current antiviral medication eliminates the virus from the body within 12 weeks from the beginning of the medication.
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