Prenatal genetic testing can prove useful to many expectant mothers under certain conditions. For example, those with inherited illnesses, those with children born with severe defects, those who are high risk of delivering a still born, and women over the age of 34 all present as likely candidates for prenatal genetic testing. It can help them identify what may be wrong with the fetus and what steps to take if something is found. However, pregnant women not at risk for such problems stand not to benefit from prenatal genetic testing as the procedure can be unsafe for the fetus and mother and is not entirely accurate.
Ethos means persuading a person through the persuader’s credibility or character. Prenatal genetic testing is performed by a qualified doctor who has experience, and a history of formal education. By having a qualified doctor perform the procedure, it may result in a positive outcome in terms of understanding what genetic conditions the baby may have.
Logos appeals to logic and so prenatal genetic testing may be useful to those inherited an illness or have family members with an inherited illness. It would seem that those with inherited genetic disorders who have high risk pregnancies would be the best candidates for prenatal genetic testing as it could help them identify any problems before the expectant mother gives birth.
Pathos is an emotional appeal and would be interpreted as guilt over not providing the best options for the mother and fetus in terms of early awareness of a condition. The opposite can be said with fear generated from performing such a procedure if it is not necessary and then experiencing complications during pregnancy.
Thesis: Prenatal genetic screening has grown in popularity as a choice for pregnant women in the United States. However, such procedure must only be used for high-risk pregnancies and for those with inherited genetic disorders due to the inaccuracy of both non-invasive and invasive procedures producing a greater risk of pregnancy complications and pre-term labor.
Prenatal genetic testing may not be as accurate as desired and can elevate the risk of preterm labor (Cook-Deegan, Conley, Evans, & Vorhaus, 2012).
Prenatal genetic testing allows the expectant mother to see if the fetus is at high or low risk of developing birth defects or having chromosomal abnormality (Roberts & Ostergren, 2013).
So many women have high risk pregnancies. The numbers are climbing due to the age of birth growing to age 40 or older and obesity becoming a prevalent health problem (Science, 2014).
The main question revolves around the recent innovations in prenatal genetic testing. Have any recent innovations led to an increase in accuracy? If so, this may provide some difficult in constructing an argument based on inaccuracy.
Week 2: Discussion 2:
Recent innovations in genetic testing has led some to believe it can be used more than it has in the past. “Genomic technologies are reaching the point of being able to detect genetic variation in patients at high accuracy and reduced cost, offering the promise of fundamentally altering medicine” (Katsanis & Katsanis, 2013, p. 415). However, there still exists ambiguity as it relates to genome-wide data and the lack of access certain regions across the globe have when it comes to next-generation sequencing abilities. That is why it is important to examine the range of methods and strategies available now including developing approaches in clinical molecular diagnostics to get a full picture of the potential and feasibility of genetic testing.
Still, although scientists and policy advisers grapple with how to interpret and how to handle the onslaught and ambiguity of genome-wide data, established and well-validated molecular technologies continue to have an important role, especially in regions of the world that have more limited access to next-generation sequencing capabilities. Here we review the range of methods currently available in a clinical setting as well as emerging approaches in clinical molecular diagnostics. Source text (Katsanis & Katsanis, 2013, p. 415).
The topic sentence supports the thesis because it questions whether or not genetic testing is feasible even with recent innovations. The quoted material adds to the paper because it shows there are recent innovations in genetic testing, but such innovations may not be accessible to everyone.
Week 3 Discussion 1:
Thesis statement: While prenatal genetic screening is widely advocated for pregnant women in the United States, prenatal genetic testing should be reserved for those with preexisting conditions and/or high-risk pregnancies as both invasive and non-invasive procedures may lack accuracy and carry a greater risk of preterm labor and pregnancy loss.
Claim: Genetic testing has expanded and includes preimplantation genetic testing.
Evidence: Genetic testing has grown to include testing at the embryo level with a procedure called PG or preimplantation genetic testing. Those who benefit from PG testing are those with advanced maternal age, severe male factor, recurrent pregnancy loss, and repeat implantation failure during IVF cycles (Brezina, Brezina, & Kearns, 2012).
Claim: While prenatal genetic testing has increased in accuracy, there are still worries over its use.
Evidence: NIPT or noninvasive prenatal genetic testing has a low false-positive rate, but may create legal, social, and ethical issues as its use expands. “The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision-making” (Minear, Alessi, Allyse, Michie, & Chandrasekharan, 2015, p. 369).
Evidence: Public opinion on genetic testing has leaned towards positive in the last few years, however, worry still remains when it comes to inequity. “…results suggest that in 8 years, expectations of benefits and potential use of genetic testing have been raised among the public, resulting in more positive opinions. Worries on inequity remain” (Henneman et al., 2012, p. 793).
Claim: Controversy over genetic testing still exists today.
Evidence: Predictive genetic testing has grown to become a standard practice of care for asymptomatic adults with a risk for genetic disease. However, when genetic testing is applied to minors at risk of such conditions, there exists great controversy, generating a twenty-year long debate (Mand, Gillam, Delatycki, & Duncan, 2012).
Slippery slope can be used in the claim of people worrying about the potential drawbacks of genetic testing. There is this subtle fear that permeates society concerning novel testing methods. However, the hasty generalizations of genetic testing being helpful and applying it to a broad range of patients is also not useful. Women have various problems while pregnant that does not require genetic testing. In fact, it may add to the potential complications, which is why the evidence points to a worry over using genetic testing as it can become a standard protocol for testing in general that is not necessary if the patient is not high-risk. Concerning the appeal to logos, so many people assume doctors and researchers know best when it comes to medical procedures and scientific literature. However, there is always room for error and it is not always wise to accept at face value what a doctor offers as a potential option for treatment or testing. The use of supporting evidence while beneficial in alleviating any potential worries, is not the full picture. However, claims are able to point the reader in the right direction of what information to explore. In the end, it takes more information and analysis to truly come to a conclusion.
Brezina, P., Brezina, D., & Kearns, W. (2012). Preimplantation genetic testing. BMJ, 345(sep18 2), e5908-e5908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e5908
Cook-Deegan, R., Conley, J., Evans, J., & Vorhaus, D. (2012). The next controversy in genetic testing: clinical data as trade secrets?. European Journal Of Human Genetics, 21(6), 585-588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2012.217
Henneman, L., Vermeulen, E., van El, C., Claassen, L., Timmermans, D., & Cornel, M. (2012). Public attitudes towards genetic testing revisited: comparing opinions between 2002 and 2010. European Journal Of Human Genetics, 21(8), 793-799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2012.271
Katsanis, S. & Katsanis, N. (2013). Molecular genetic testing and the future of clinical genomics.Nature Reviews Genetics, 14(6), 415-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrg3493
Mand, C., Gillam, L., Delatycki, M., & Duncan, R. (2012). Predictive genetic testing in minors for late-onset conditions: a chronological and analytical review of the ethical arguments: Figure 1. J Med Ethics, 38(9), 519-524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2011-100055
Minear, M., Alessi, S., Allyse, M., Michie, M., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2015). Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Annu. Rev. Genom. Hum. Genet., 16(1), 369-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-090314-050000
Roberts, J. & Ostergren, J. (2013). Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing and Personal Genomics Services: A Review of Recent Empirical Studies. Current Genetic Medicine Reports, 1(3), 182-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40142-013-0018-2
Science, L. (2014). Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests: Benefits & Risks. Live Science. Retrieved 15 October 2016, from http://www.livescience.com/45949-prenatal-genetic-testing.html
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.