The effects of plastics and microplastics on marine life

Qn. 1:
Educational/Professional Credentials of Oliver Bajt
Oliver Baijt graduated with chemical technology and chemistry at the University of Ljubljana in 1983. He completed his M.Sc. in 1985. He graduated with a Ph.D. in 1994 with the same faculty (BAJT, 2020). After working for a short time in the chemical industry, he began working as a scientist at the National Institute of Marine-Biology, a biology station in Piran. Oliver’s major field of research is the research of organic matter (pollutants and natural) moving in the marine setting. The major area of his study is shaped towards degradation, focusing on the degradation of photochemical. Apart from Olivers research activity, he is also a professor in the school of transportation and maritime studies (University of Ljubljana). The subjects are linked to marine pollution and environmental protection.
Qn. 2
The audience of the article
The intended audience for this article is students and aspiring scholars who want to gain more knowledge on the effects of plastics and microplastics on marine life. They are interested in how marine organisms are attracted to plastics because of their shape, color, and particularly algae which breed on plastic materials suspended in these large water bodies or deposited at the sea bed. The second area of interest is how marine animals easily ingest microplastics because of their small size. Even the impact of these particles once ingested and the different adverse impacts they can have on energy budget, reproduction, a decrease of predatory performance, and feeding behavior. This will also include mortality, physical damage, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, histological changes, and inflammatory responses(Bajt, 2021).
Another area of interest for this audience is the specific surface area of the microplastic materials and how they create room for adsorption of various biomolecules which intermingle organic systems plus the adsorption of rampant biological pollutants. The way this offers a vector for translocation of such pollutants by materials suspended in the sea or ocean waters over long distances is a focal point of interest to the audience.
Qn. 3
Questions the researcher is trying to answer.
The researchers are trying to respond to how the defecation of micro-materials by marine life is so significant and its influence on toxicological, trophic transfer, accumulation, and the cycling impacts of marine lives. They are also trying to explain how various conditions directly influence the excretion of materials and how the retention time of microparticles is prolonged by the availability of food in the mussels. They are trying to solve other questions about how to speedy excretion of micromaterials resulting from mussels. Next is how the gut retention time is linked to the size of micromaterials.
Next is how the microplastics encourage toxic consequences, both in the early stages of the growth of fish and adult fishes. The researchers are also presenting the outcomes of behavioral and physiological impacts resulting from fish feeding on ecological microplastics, according to the gathering of marine organisms at various life stages from 3 islands in the South and North Pacific Gyres(Bajt, 2021).
Qn. 4
The article entitled From Plastics to Microplastics and Organisms by Oliver Bajttalks about the number of microplastics and plastic waste emitted in marine settings. The states that these materials have more than doubled in recent years. The durability of these plastic materials floating on the sea or ocean water, or the ones deposited on the sea bed, causes major challenges when emitted into the marine environment. The article summarizes new findings on matters associated with plastic degradation, deposition of microplastics in fishes and mussels, and the toxicological impacts linked to the consumption of microplastics.
Different analytical and sampling approaches using different species. Same results can be drawn from the research of other pollutants to test conditions, indicator organisms, analytical organisms, and the expression of results together with other considerations. The results prove the serious challenges of gradually degrading plastics that do not fully degrade within the natural marine settings. Microplastics are viewed as prevalent toxinsspotted in fish and mussels globally. Microplastic materials, whether with adsorbed or virgin pollutants on their sides, leads to a health challenge when them.
Qn. 5
I strongly believe in the article because the author, Oliver Bajt, has outstanding credentials, is well-respected, and is an expert. The citations for various most recent sources were used, and the intext citations are up-to-date. The information provided in the article is current, up-to-date, and properly aligns with the topic. The publication and the author have also trusted authority within the research topic. are unbiased, clear, and easy to find. Their layout and URL signify that they are trustworthy for the web sources provided. The author has undoubtedly convinced me of his conclusion since he conducted his research using different analytical and sampling approaches. Besides, the researcher used different species. The findings were scientifically tested in the laboratory to validate them.
Qn. 6
Applications or Implications
Microplastic pollution has already emerged as a rampant challenge, with micromaterials of artificial polymers present in many parts globally, comprising very remote regions without significant sources of pollution. Microplastics have been recognized in different fish and mussel species, sometimes in low concentrations. The challenge is becoming rampant because the dilapidation of plastic substances within the natural ecosystem is a gradual process, majorly driven by photochemical and mechanical processes. Different researchers have also reported the deadly adverse impacts on ocean and sea life when consuming microplastics.
Ingestion of microplastics by marine organisms has also resulted in changes in their swimming behavior, increased DNA breaks and ethoxyresorufinOdemethylase activity, decreased body/head ratios, and even deaths. Different researchers have identified DNA breaks and ethoxyresorufinOdeethylase as the leached plastic pollutants and additives that get adsorbed on plastic surfaces (Bajt, 2021). The harmfulness of microplastics has also been linked severally to the polymer composition. The nanosized and microparticles have been attributed to the adverse impacts on goldfish larvae when their concentrations are high, leading to inhibited movement and growth, increased heart rate, and damage to gill tissues, liver, and intestine.

BAJT, O. (2020). ASSOC. PROF. DR. OLIVER BAJT. Nib. Retrieved 29 May 2022, from
Bajt, O. (2021). From plastics to microplastics and organisms. Bib. Retrieved 29 May 2022, from

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