Solution to Stop Drug Trafficking and Terrorism in the United States and Abroad
Drug trafficking and terrorism in the U.S. And abroad
Simply put, illegal drugs appear to be one of, if not the most lucrative sources of funds for terrorist activities. Mainstream media, scholars, policymakers, and even the general public commonly believe that terrorist activity is funded by global sales and/or trade in illegal drugs. It has been suggested that terrorist groups use the funds generated from the lucrative drug trade for bribery, communication networks, safe houses, and weapons purchases (DEA, 2014). Furthermore, if true, these funds from sale of illicit drugs also enable planning and execution of even more attacks. Advantages of the illicit drug market to terrorists might include ease of entry into the drug trade, minimal infrastructure investment needed, and insignificant transportation costs relative to immense profit (Ballentine 2003; Cornell 2005). Other factors may include the fact that increased monitoring of terrorist groups following the 9/11 terrorist event in the United States has removed many of their former support systems, inducing a shift towards income that is less easy to trace (Dolar and Shughart 2007; Lipitz 2007; Ortiz 2002; Sanderson 2004). While once some terrorist groups were actually ‘state-sponsored’, the presence of such sponsorship has begun to seriously decline, increasing the need for these groups to generate other revenues.
This paper examines the inter-relationship between terrorism and the illicit drugs. In particular, a correlation is made between artificially inflated drug prices (perhaps even caused by the very interdictment that is intended to stem the flow of drugs) and enhanced terrorism activities. Indeed, if such a correlation is valid, it is only logical that efforts directed towards minimizing the illicit drug market will concomitantly decrease terrorism by cutting off their most lucrative source of funding (Piazza, 2011).
Drugs, Counter Narcotics Policies and Terrorism
In certain countries, there is a ‘vicious cycle’ between a destabilized government, the illicit drug trade, and terrorists taking advantage of both (Piazza, 2011). It consistently appears that the more the governments are destabilized the more that both drug trade and terrorist activities are enhanced (Kleiman 2004). The list of terrorists believed to be involved in the illegal drug trade is large, and includes many countries around the globe. These include: Hezbollah; the Filipino Abu Sayyaf movement; the Indian separatist United Liberation Front of Assam; IS or ISIL/ISIL, presently in Iran and Syria; the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK); the Peruvian Sendero Luminoso; Protestant para-military organizations in Northern Ireland; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC; the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA) dissidents in Northern Ireland; and the Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan (Baruah 1994; Bibes 2001; Filler 2002; Makarenko 2004; Roth and Sever 2007; West 2014).
For FARC alone, it has been estimated that as much as 50% of their operational base funds are derived from cocaine trafficking and coca production (Rangel 1998). This example relates to the link between the illegal drug trade and the terrorist activity within one country; however, it is also the case that funds derived from the drug trade may have a trans-national effect on terrorism. Drug trafficking and production in one country may finance terrorism not only locally, aka domestic terrorism, but also terrorism at a considerable remove within a given continent or even internationally (Piazza, 2011).
One aspect of counter-terrorism policy is based upon the presumption of a connection between terrorism and the illegal drug trade. ‘Fighting terrorism’ has increasingly become a rationale for policies that are counter-narcotics by the United Nations via its Office for Drugs and Crime (UNDOC) as well as within Western Europe and the United States (Felbab-Brown 2009). Some of the ‘terrorist hot spots’ in Latin America, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and South Asia are, in particular, the focus of anti-terrorism activities. In the fight against terrorism, interdictment of cocaine, heroin, and opium shipments is being consistently used, as well as attempts to eradicate both coca and poppy crops. Such actions in the Philippines, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Yemen, while controversial, are based upon methods used during the 1980s in Columbia as part of the successful strategy used against the Medellin illicit drug cartel (Kenney (2003). Thus, successful methods for stemming narcotics have become a routine part of policy and methodology against terrorism, based on recognition of the unfortunate symbiosis between the two.
There are two separate issues here: the international drug trade, and terrorist activity. However, by showing that they are linked, it is possible also to consider means by which attacking, diminishing or eliminating one issue may have a significant impact upon the other. Kleiman (2004) describes the relationship between the two as ‘cash’ and ‘chaos’. First, there is unquestionably a large illegal profit from the sale of illicit drugs; as well, this presupposes a large market for such drugs. In addition to direct sales, ‘taxes’ placed on each of the various steps in the drug ‘pipeline’ of traffickers, refiners, drug storage ‘houses’, intermediaries and drug cultivators produce additional income streams. This rich cash source is now the income for terrorists, who use their profits to launch even more terrorist attacks (Peters 2009). Based on this idea that drugs equal cash, and cash equals increased terrorism, approaches to decrease terrorism have begun to specifically focus on the drug aspect. Steps involved have included destruction of drug crops, destruction of drug production sites, and interdiction of drug products to stop the cash flow; this is now common counter-terrorism policy for many countries (Biersteker and Eckert 2007; Kleiman 2004; Steinitz 2002; Winer and Roule, 2002).
Kleiman (2004) also describes ‘chaos’ with respect to drugs and terrorism: in this example the drug market results in unstable governments, deterioration of the security of a country, and a loss of civil order. Once this happens, an increase in terrorism continues to occur, while the drug market concomitantly expands, bringing about more chaos and again increasing both drug markets and terrorism activities. The chaos argument is perhaps slightly more complex than the ‘cash’ argument and is used less frequently by media and/or policy makers; however studies have shown that there are correlations between weak political entities and both strong terrorism and strong drug markets (Lai 2007; Piazza, 2011).
In general, it appears that it is consumer demand for illicit drugs, especially the opiates, which results in an inelastic price, meaning that consumers will buy no matter what the cost.
While there may be a few variations, on the whole those who purchase illegal drugs for themselves want the drugs regardless of cost. Furthermore, they will not accept a substitute or a less expensive product, even with price hikes; this is most likely a correlate of addiction and concomitant addictive behavior. This behavior includes as well the need for a regularly scheduled and/or steady stream of purchases whenever possible. Inelastic drug prices are to the benefit of the seller and the terrorist, while negative for the consumer, who must now raise the funds for his/her drugs. If the buyer has a limited or fixed income, higher drug prices may result in higher domestic crime to pay for the illicit drugs. Higher drug prices bring more funds and profits to the sellers, the terrorists, and increased drug revenues lead to a more active terrorist force (Godwin 1983; Wagstaff and Maynard 1988). Every price increase provides the terrorists with more revenue, so that terrorists who are involved in drug trafficking can be more active; higher drug prices would seem to correlate with increased terrorist attacks.
While there have been no detailed empirical studies on terrorist groups and drug revenues, it is known that in the case of Mexican drug trafficking gangs, decreasing drug profits decreases the extent of violence (Kilmer et al. 2010). While it is obvious that an increase in drug crops will lead to an increase in drug production and an increase in drug sales, it should also be the case that more crops are associated with lower prices, and potentially a decrease in profits. This may be a fine line between how much crop can be produced without resulting in a drastically lowered price and profit. Regardless, it appears that in each case the terrorists only make more money and engage in more terrorist activities (Piazza, 2011).
A General Approach to the Concept of Organized Crime
According to Flores (2007), organized crime can be viewed from at least three orientations:  that of the illegal enterprise and the multiple layers involved;  that of the client, who may be limited in whom he can deal with; and  that of the interrelationship between the two. Criminal organizations are said to operate from a tripod of ‘obstruction of justice, violence, and corruption’, where violence is a means of control, and both obstruction of justice and corruption are used for expansion, (Herran et al., 2007). Unfortunately, in the case of Mexico, the known corruption has led to a distrust of the rule of law among the populace (Otero, 2011). Crime is no longer a local or even regional matter, but has grown beyond even national borders. The bottom line for much of organized crime is to obtain profits (Otero, 2011). In the United States, more strength could be given to the ‘war on drugs’ by increasing, and/or more fully enforcing monetary aspects through the IRS, Internal Revenue Service, and its Narcotics-Related Financial Investigations (IRS, 2014).
Dispersion and Fragmentations of Criminal Drug Trafficking Organizations (The Cockroach Effect)
There are many countries involved in the production of illegal drugs, usually beginning with an economically disadvantaged, or peasant, grower. The Bolivian associations of coca growers work together to deter criminal organizations, with the help of the military as well (Bagley, 2012). Since the Movimiento Nacional Revolucionario, also known as the MNR or National Revolutionary Movement, the coca growers/peasant cooperatives also succeeded in blocking the rise of guerrilla movements as drug intermediaries, although at times there have been cases where the Bolivian Military was involved in such (Bagley, 2012). In contrast, Peru’s lack of connections between peasant growers leads to the rise of traffickers. Peru’s intelligence chief Valdimiro Montesinos and his military apparatus have been involved in drug trafficking and/or acting as drug intermediaries; similarly the Sendero Luminoso, a guerrilla organization has also been known to participate in drug intermediary roles and/or drug trafficking. Columbia is known for its strong criminal arm, such as the Cali and Medellin cartels, and the Nortedel Valle cartel, which were then supplanted by paramilitary organizations and the FARC; these organizations learned that even successful criminals could not openly confront the state (Bagley, 2012).
The story is slightly murkier in Mexico and Central America where police and/or military have both fought against and aided the drug trade. Columbia was ultimately a success story, in terms of the ‘war on drugs’ as the cartels were defeated when they attempted to rise to power and directly go against the state (Bagley, 2012).
Cocaine profits appear to be very dominant criminal market in the Mexico of today, similarly with Colombia of the 1980’s and 1990’s, including an increase in violence. While the present situation in Mexico is very brutal, it would appear that drug-trafficking is going the way of the Colombian organizations, and perhaps set up to fail. Several different Mexican cartels have been active: the Juarez cartel, which involves the Carrillo Fuentes family, and the Arrellano Felix family (the Tijuana cartel) were the strongest and largest illicit drug organizations in Mexico in 2000. Mexico still to the present has several large drug trafficking organizations; however, as they grow and disperse they become weaker (Bagley, 2012). At present the drug cartels are not themselves directly involved in terrorism, although it is clear that terrorists seek a foothold in Mexico (West, 2014).
Strategies to Combat Trafficking
The United States has had a ‘war on drugs’ since the term of President Nixon. This war on domestic drug abuse soon shifted to a fight against drug trafficking as well. By 1982, the foreign policy of President Reagan was established to ‘interdict and eradicate illegal drugs’ regardless of locale of cultivation, national origin or place of processing, and method of transportation. Reagan’s approach was adopted by other countries, and has become a worldwide endeavor to eliminate drugs. However, despite well over forty years of effort, there is little to no evidence of a decrease in the global drug industry. Indeed, there are many, including United States government officials, who consider the ‘war on drugs’ to be a total failure (Jenner, 2011). The attempts to use the ‘war on drugs’ to halt domestic use have apparently been a lesser focus of interest; one hears very little about attempts to help heroin addicts, with say a program parallel to the methadone program once renowned for its successes in the United Kingdom. Drug abuse in the United States, particularly the aspect of ‘dirty needles’ seems to have shifted towards prevention of HIV / AIDS, while the larger focus is now on deterrent efforts to halt illicit drug arrival into the United States.
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), a commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is an important policy-maker for the United Nations (UN). CND and its members provide advice to the U.N. General Assembly, as well as monitoring international illicit drug control. Three conventions on drug control include: the U.N. Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The 1971 convention focuses on illicit trafficking, which addresses both drug distribution and drug markets; this convention also recognizes that there are considerable financial profits involved in drug trafficking, which enable criminals to corrupt and contaminate society. The intent of these conventions is to strengthen and improve cooperation at an international level by directly targeting drug production as well as drug profits (Jenner, 2011).
Interdiction efforts by the United States have become increasingly stronger. The idea of ‘interdiction’ is based on the military concept of disrupting an enemy’s supply line. Thus, the U.S. has used the Coast Guard to patrol bodies of water likely to have ongoing trafficking, and other U.S. military arms work to intercept drugs that may be crossing land borders. However, it is rather ‘common knowledge’ that if one drug delivery route is successfully halted, another springs up quickly elsewhere. The yearly Drug Report from the U.N. Office of Drugs and crime indicates approximately 150 thousand kilos of cocaine were seized in the U.S. In 2007, which represents a 50% rise from the year 2002. Obviously, interdiction is not successful in its attempts to deter the illicit drug industry. Jenner (2011) suggests that at least 70% of drug production must be seized in order to act effectively as a deterrent. It is also obvious that attempts to provide estimates of the proportion of global drug production seized are unlikely to represent a true assessment. The present U.S. expenditure on drug programs globally is on the order of $50 billion, and it is estimated that at least double this would be needed to seriously affect drug production and even drug transport (Jenner, 2011).
Some policy makers and fact-checkers say that interdiction is more likely to raise prices and increase profits of the drug industry, by making the product scarcer. This scarcity is often accompanied by an increase in violent activities. While some suggest that causing a price increase for drugs will result in decreased consumption, they may not be considering the inelasticity of drug consumption, and the fact that buyers will buy regardless of price due to the addictive nature of the drugs. This means the decrease in consumption may not be significant, but the increase in profits may be considerable, with a concomitant increase in the associated violence and terrorism. Indeed, some would argue that interdiction actually rewards traffickers (Jenner, 2011).
In the opinion of some, the country of Mexico currently faces the worst drug trafficking issues at present. As of 2009, Mexico has a new ‘Law Against Small Drug Traffickers’, which decriminalizes personal use of narcotic drugs, cocaine, and marijuana. The intent is to use resources for work directed towards elimination of traffickers and cartels. Drug policy discussions may not always clearly distinguish between decriminalization, the act whereby modest possession of a drug is not illegal (but the drug production chain remains illegal), and legalization, in which all drugs are not only legal but the entire chain from drug production to sales is allowed. Decriminalization, as in Mexico’s new law, continues to hold selling, production, and trafficking of drugs to be illegal, with small scale use/possession being considered ‘legal’. In stark contrast, legalization results in legalization of all stages of the present drug market, from growth through use and possession (Jenner, 2011). The 1976 decriminalization of marijuana in the Netherlands has been positive for that country, within specific guidelines.
If drugs were to be legalized, that would not render violent crimes involved in the drug trade legal. It would result in each country establishing their own regulations and market system. It may not be commonly known, but Paraguay, Uraguay and even Colombia (to a limited extent) permit possession of small quantities of formerly illegal drugs. The Colombian decision is controversial, with U.S. pressure to block the decriminalization of said small amounts. The Supreme Court in Argentina has recently found possession of small amounts of marijuana to not be illegal. These changes in Central and South America are being watched by many to see if they do indeed result in a decrease in violence, and perhaps in associated criminal activity (Jenner, 2011).
Mexico is an extreme case at present with outrageous and horrendously bloody violence occurring between the cartels and spreading to the innocent public. It is unclear what effect the new decriminalization act by the Mexican government will have on the situation, but some fear it will be insufficient. Some say that Mexico’s policy is essentially just a mixture of the Plan Colombia and the United States work on interdiction; others are more hopeful that this act may indeed deter traffickers and cartels (Jenner, 2011).
If one accepts the premise that prohibition of drugs, interdiction, and all of the ongoing elements of the ‘war on drugs’ only serve to raise the price and provide lucrative support for terrorists, then one solution might simply be to legalize drugs, changing the entire global market.
It is suggested here that removal of the link between international terrorism and international drug trade could seriously undermine terrorism by universal legalization. Small steps towards legalization are occurring in a variety of different venues. There is a growing demand for what are presently called psychotropic drugs, such as ayahuasca, that are said to be ‘entheogens’, leading to a spiritualization of the individual and with some surprisingly strong statistics in terms of ‘curing’ heroin addiction and alcoholism. This is a growing ‘spiritual tourist market’ in South American countries. As mentioned, the Netherlands have decriminalized marijuana, and several of the United States have also taken this step, even though marijuana is still technically illegal federally in the U.S.
Legalization would remove the profit motive from the drug trade; this would remove a considerable portion of the funds used by international terrorists, and thus legalization could end both the drug trade and seriously weaken terrorists, particularly if legalization is viewed not as a domestic, but as a global issue (Jenner, 2011). The idea of global legalization would require a nation-by-nation cost-benefit analysis. In order for legalization to be effective, all steps in the drug process would need to be legalized, nearly simultaneously, on a global basis. This would be expected to immediately decrease violence, as the drug market would no longer be profitable.
The United States went through a serious period of lawlessness during the time that alcohol was criminalized by the 21st amendment to the Constitution. Following the repeal of the 21st amendment, the illegal alcohol market all but disappeared, and alcohol sales no longer included ‘bootleg whiskey’. Subsequently, the alcohol market changed and laws came into place concerning sales of alcohol to minors, and various state and local laws concerning hours of alcohol availability in various markets. Thus it is possible that legalization of drugs could create markets that were legitimate, rather than illicit, and positive market forces might enter in, perhaps analogous to what happened in the United States when the 21st amendment was overturned. This is, in part, being modeled in the United States at present, with the legalization of marijuana in states such as Colorado and Washington. So far, the states’ revenues have soared, and there has been both a decrease in the local black markets, and a concomitant decrease in local crime. Others predict that a marijuana black market is likely to return, because buyers feel that state-mandated prices in Colorado and Washington States are too high. As well there has been a rash of newspaper accounts of young innocents unsuspectingly eating marijuana-laced cookies with consequent ill health effects. The legal systems are struggling to define ‘driving high’ and what constitutes a dangerous excess where the individual should not be behind the wheel, especially as tests for marijuana levels are not as straight-forward as an alcohol breath-analyzer test. Since these changes are only a year or so old, it is unclear what long-term ramifications may be, but perhaps these states represent ‘test cases’ for the rest of the nation, with respect to marijuana, and potentially as models for what might occur upon legalization of ‘hard drugs’ such as heroin and cocaine.
Of course, it is obvious that those using drug trafficking to support their terrorist activities will not suddenly ‘become angels’. However, undercutting their easy access to large funding is likely to have a significantly negative effect on their activities as funding dries up. While there would remain other income sources for terrorists, such as human trafficking and the arms trade, the loss of their major income could also decrease other activities (Jenner, 2011).
In summary, this report has shown the clear correlation between the illicit drug trade and local, regional, national, and international terrorism. The links between the two, and the dependence of terrorism on drug income suggests that the results of more direct action against the drug trade can logically be expected to undercut terrorism. Several options to decrease and/or halt the drug trade are explored, including global legalization. While legalization may be a surprising approach to many, and controversial, it is one direction by which the high prices and large income funding of terrorism could be destroyed.
Bagley, B. (2012). Drug Trafficking And Organized Crime In The Americas. Woodrow Wilson International Center.
Ballentine, K. (2003). Beyond greed and grievance: reconsidering the economic dynamics of armed conflict. In K. Ballentine & J. Sherman (Eds.), The political economy of armed conflict (pp. 159-186). Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Baruah, S. (1994). The state and separatist militancy in Assam: winning a Battle and losing the war. Asian Survey, 34(10), 863-877
Bibes, P. (2001). Transnational organized crime and terrorism: Colombia, a case study. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 17(3), 243-258
Biersteker, T.J., & Eckert, S.E. (2007).Countering the financing of terrorism. New York: Routledge
Cornell, S.E. (2005). Narcotics, radicalism and armed conflict in Central Asia: The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan. Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(4), 619-639.
DEA (2014). www.dea.gov/pr/speeches-testimony/2012-2009/ct030310.pdf Accessed 21 Dec 2014.
Dolar, B., & Shughart, W. (2007). The wealth effects of the U.S.A. Patriot Act: Evidence from the banking and thrift industries. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 10(3), 300-317
Felbab-Brown, V. (2009).Shooting up: counterinsurgency and the war on drugs. Washington: Brookings Institution.
Filler, A.L. (2002). The Abu Sayyaf group: a growing menace to civil society. Terrorism and Political Violence, 14(4), 131-162.
Godwin, B. (1983). An economic analysis of the illicit drug market. Substance Use and Misuse, 18(5), 681- 700.
Herran, M., Santiago, JL., Gonzalez, S., Mendieta, E. (2007). Aproximaciongeneral a la delincuenciaorganizada.In M. Herran, JL. Santiago, S.Gonzalez, E. Mendieta, (Eds.), Analisis, Tecnicas y Herramientasen elcombate a la delincuenciaorganizada y corrupcion con fundamentoenla Convencion de Palermo (pp. 23-25, 67-72). Mexico: Coyoacan
IRS (2014) http://www.irs.gov/uac/Narcotics-Related-Financial-Investigations-Criminal-Investigation-%28CI%29 Accessed 20 Dec 2014
Jenner, M.S. (2011). International Drug Trafficking: A Global Problem with a Domestic Solution. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies.
Kenney, M. (2003). From Pablo to Osama: counter terrorism lessons from the war on drugs. Survival, 45(3), 187-206.
Kleiman, M.A.R. (2004). Illicit drugs and the terrorist threat: causal links and implications for domestic drug control policy. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, RL32334. Washington: The Library of Congress
Kilmer, B., Caulkins, J.P., Bond, B.M., & Reuter, P.H. (2010).Reducing drug trafficking revenues and violence in Mexico. Rand Corporation Occasional Paper. Santa Monica: Rand
Lai, B. (2007). Draining the swamp: an empirical examination of the production of international terrorism, 1968-1998. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 24(4), 297-310
Lipitz, E. (2007). Opium and Afghanistan. Journal on Science and World Affairs, 3(1), 1-14.
Makarenko, T. (2004). The crime-terror continuum: tracing the interplay between transnational organized crime and terrorism. Global Crime, 6(1), 129-145
Otero, P. (2011). Possible Criminal Justice Solutions to Organized Crime: Drug Trafficking and Terrorism. The Open Criminology Journal, 109-119.
Peters, G. (2009). Seeds of terror: how heroin is bankrolling the Taliban and Al Qaeda. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.
Piazza, J.A. (2011). The illicit drug trade, counternarcotics strategies and terrorism. Public Choice, 297-314.
Ortiz, R.A. (2002). Insurgent strategies in the post-cold war: the case of the revolutionary armed forces of Colombia. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 25(2), 127-143.
Rangel, A. (1998). Colombia: guerraen el fin de siglo. Bogota: TercerMundo
Roth, M.P., & Sever, M. (2007). The Kurdish Worker’s Party (PKK) as a criminal syndicate: funding terrorism through organized crime. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 30(10), 901-920
Sanderson, T.M. (2004). Transnational terror and organized crime: blurring the lines. SAIS Review, 24(1), 49.
Steinitz, M.S. (2002). The terrorism drug connection in Latin America’s Andean region. In Policy papers on the Americas (vol. XIII, study 5), Center for Strategic and International Studies, http://www. revistainterforum.com/english/pdf_en/pp_steinitz.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2014.
Wagstaff, A., & Maynard, A. (1988).Economic aspects of the illicit drug market and drug enforcement policies in the United Kingdom. Home Office Research Study 95 (pp. 40-11). London: HMSO.
West, A.B. (2014) http://allenbwest.com/2014/08/nightmare-border-isis-mexican-cartels-teaming / accessed 20 Dec 2014
Winer, J.M., & Roule, T.J. (2002). Fighting terrorist finance. Survival, 44(3), 87-104
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.