Research Critiques and PICOT Format Review

PICOT Format

In the United States, The COP (Chronic obstructive pulmonary) disease is one of top serious diseases that places a great burden on patients and healthcare system because it is associated with high rate of outpatients visit, hospitalization and readmission. In the last few decades, the COP has become the top public health issues with over 65 million cases of COP In the U.S., the direct costs of the COP disease is enormous reaching $32.1 billon because of the associated prevalence of the COP disease. The UK is facing similar problem where 1.6% of the population is suffering from the COP disease, and costs burden reaching £800 million yearly with direct costs of hospitalization reaching £800 million per annum, and direct medical costs reaching £625 million. However, the prevalence of the COP disease is likely to rise because of an increase in the ageing population.

The telehealth is an effective healthcare intervention to manage the complication of the COP disease since the telehealth can assist in meeting the patients’ healthcare needs. The telehealth is defined as an exchange of information between the healthcare professionals and patients to meet the health needs of people suffering from COP disease using the electronic devices. (Brewster, et al. 2013). Essentially, the telehealth can provide a significant healthcare benefits for patients thereby reducing healthcare costs, mortality rates and departmental visits. (Greenhalgh, Wherton, Sugarhood, et al. (2013).

The purpose of this study is to provide a critique of quantitative and qualitative research that explores the effectiveness of home telehealth in monitoring patients suffering from COPD as well as identifying and analyzing the effectiveness of increased confidence, self-managing, and decreasing COPD exacerbation and hospitalization.

Qualitative Study

This study provides the critique of the research paper completed by Gorst, Coates, Armitage, (2016). While telehealth can provide considerable benefits to people suffering from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nevertheless, many patients do not possess necessary skills to operate the telehealth electronic devices making 20% of patient abandoning the use of technology. Another barrier to the use of the telehealth technology is lack of technical skills of patients.. It has been noticed that many patients face challenges in manipulating the telehealth equipment. Thus, it is critical to identify factors that affect the patients decisions to continuing using the telehealth technology, and this issue is crucial in the mainstream telehealth goal for patients.

Research Problem

Analysis of the study show that the telehealth provides a significant benefits for people based on the scrutiny of different variables that include clinical settings, and demographic setting, nevertheless, patient decision to use the telehealth in the healthcare setting is not standardized. Although, some patients might decide to abandon the home telehealth, there are other participants who will embrace the technology to manage their disease. (Gorst, et al., 2016). These patients will still more at easy knowing that their disease can be managed at home by monitoring their vital signs, knowing when to contact the health professionals after being discharged from the hospital (Gorst, et al., 2016). The frequent transmission of the physiological data collected at home with no direct health professional intervention and the data transmitted to the health care professional for review reveals the ability of patients for self-management. (Gorst, et al., 2016, p. 3).

Research Objective, Hypothesis, or Question

The research objective is to identify the most effective way in using home telehealth to reduce the COPD complications, re-hospitalization and assisting patients in self-monitoring. Self-management of the disease can enhance self-esteem, decrease stress and complication related to the COPD. Although, some patients were not impressed in using home telehealth, however, they still realize the importance of telehealth in self-managing the disease. (Gorst, et al., 2016, p. 7).

The research question is as follows:

Does the use of telehealth reduce the current health problems of patients suffering from COPD?

While this study frames a question related to the research objective, nevertheless, Gorst, et al., (2016) does not provide the research question related to their study, which is one of the shortcomings of the study. The researchers ought to provide the research question or the research hypothesis and collect data towards answering the research question and testing the research hypothesis.

Literature Review

The study provides a comprehensive literature review to enhance a greater understanding of the benefit of telehealth for patients suffering from COPD. One of the examples of the literature used is Greenhalgh, Wherton, Sugarhood, Hinder, et al. (2013) who also explain the barrier of using the home telehealth. The weakness of the research is related to the participants’ cooperation and consistency in using the telehealth monitoring and understanding the importance of self-managing their disease. Greenhalgh et al., (2013), relates the difficulty of older population in using the new technology showing that the participants’ difficulty of adjusting the new technology will have a negative impact in self-management of disease. (Greenhalgh, et al., 2013). Despite a comprehensive literature review provided by the authors, no literature has provided the solutions to the barriers in using the telehealth technology. Typically, solving the barrier to the use of the health technology is pertinent to effectiveness of modern technology, and the solution to the problems is critical in continuing using the new technology.

Frame of Reference

The researchers used the phenomenological theory, and arranged data collected during the interview using six steps. (Gorst, et al., 2016, p. 3). The authors used the frame reference of participants that include age, gender, living situation, time of diagnosed with COPD, and time using the home tele monitor. (Gorst, et al., 2016, p. 2). Furthermore, during the study the table used was used to measure the equipment used, time of monitoring the vital signs, follow up and the health care provider who was involved. (Gorst, et al., 2016, p. 3).

Quantitative Study

Jakobsen et al. (2013) provides the benefit in using home telehealth monitoring in patients suffering from COPD. The authors identify the telehealth benefits that include decrease of re-hospitalization and decline in health care cost, increase self-esteem, and improving quality of life. (Jakobsen et al., 2013). While the authors argued that no risks involved in using the telehealth monitoring, however, participants required education and reinforcement of the symptoms to report to their health care providers regardless of use of telehealth monitor. The participants’ knowledge in using the telehealth monitor to prevent the risk of complications and detect early symptoms of exacerbation is still limited.

Protection of Human Participants

The researchers obtained appropriate consents from the participants. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 6). Even though, the participants were randomly chosen and the specific criteria was used, there is no evidence that they were not voluntarily participated in the trial. The participants were informed about the equipment, the time of using the technology, they were taught in using the equipment and emergency contact was given. (Jakobsen et al., 2013, p. 4). The research was approved by the “Danish Regional Committee on Scientific Ethics and the Danish Data Protection Agency” (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 6). However, the researcher did not provide a comprehensive discussion on how the private information of the participants is protected. Typically, a protection of private information of human participants is very critical in healthcare research.

Data Collection

The researchers collected data using the quantitative research, however, the authors did not define in details the independent and dependent variable, but the independent variable can be identified as the patient using the monitor and follow the instructions given and the dependent variable can be identified as patient not readmitted to hospital at least one month after discharged. (Jakobsen et al., 2013). The randomized, open method, using a “inclusive criteria” was used in collecting data and choosing the participants in the study. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 2). The participants were enrolled in a trial for a duration of “18 months.” (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 2).

The researchers were trying to identify if the telehealth monitoring helps in decreasing the participants visits to the hospital. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 2). All participants were educated and evaluated prior to discharged, they were monitored daily through the electronic device and through the follow-up visits. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 2).

Problem Statement in PICOT Format

P- The patients with COPD visiting the hospital more frequently. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 7).

I-Improving quality of life, being home and able to self-manage the disease, decrease hospitalization time. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 5).

C-The experience of participants will help in further research and intervention to improve COPD management by using new technology. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 7).

O- The self-managing of COPD and prevent hospitalization.

Data Analysis or Management

Data was collected by monitoring the vital signs, records from the time at discharge, follow up visit, emergency room visits, re-hospitalization, and death. Another form of data that was obtain through the participants’ questionnaire regarding use of telehealth monitor. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 5). The analyses were made using software and “a stratified cox regression.” (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 6). The paper trail was used for the survey letter done by the participants. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 6). Even though, the researchers were very careful in preventing the bias related to the study using the “consecutive enrollment and central randomization,” some bias might have been incorporated in the study due to many factors such as the multiple health care professional involved. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 7).

Quality of Study

The study was evaluated and accepted by Universities Hospitals and had peer reviews. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 7). The randomized selection of participants and the criteria used in choosing them explains the importance of the research. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 2).

Implication for Practice

At the beginning of the trial 175 participants were chosen, but the researchers were anticipating that some participants might abandon the study by the end of the trial, others to be re-hospitalized or dead. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 5). The authors did not elaborate about the participants’ numbers at the end of the trial. The participants experience is not evaluated in the research that assist in understanding their view of using the telehealth monitor. Therefore, it is hard to have a clear picture of the research findings without having the participants’ opinion to analyze the data. These research can also be applied for patients with chronic disease such as Heart Failure in monitoring and helping them in self-managing the disease in their home.

Future Research

This study can help in further research for the benefit of using the telehealth monitoring for patients with COPD and other chronic disease. The collaboration of health care providers to monitor patients in their homes can be further evaluated. (Jakobsen et al., 2013 p. 7). Further studies can focus on the coherence of use of telehealth monitor, the motivation adherence to the program, the benefit of using versus of not using the telehealth, and the cost of using the device.


The articles analyzed in this study emphasis the importance of patients with COPD, self-managing their diseases and prevent hospitalization by using the electronic device. There is not enough evidence to support that telehealth monitoring will reduce the hospitalization. Further research is needed to address the barrier in using the telehealth technology. Nevertheless, telehealth monitoring is a tool that will empowers patients to take action in managing their disease. The patients understanding to care for themselves will enable them to take action and fight in improving their quality of life. The modern technology can be a great tool in monitoring the patients at home. Although, the re-hospitalizations might not be avoided entirely, nevertheless, the complications of COPD can be better monitored.


Brewster, L. Mountain, G. Wessels, B. et al. (2013). Factors affecting frontline staff acceptance of telehealth technologies: a mixed-method systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 70(1):21-33. doi: 10.1111/jan.12196.

Greenhalgh, T., Wherton, J., Sugarhood, P., Hinder, S., et al. (2013). What matters to older people with assisted living needs? A phenomenological analysis of the use and non-use of telehealth and telecare. Social Science & Medicine, 93: 86-94.

Gorst, S., Coates, E., & Armitage, C. (2016). “It’s sort of a lifeline”: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients’ experiences of home telehealth. Health Pyschology, 35(1): 60-68. Retrieved from

Jakobsen A. S., Laursen L. C., Ostergaard B., Rydahl-Hansen S., & Phanareth K. V. (2013). Open Access Hospital-admitted COPD patients treated at home using telemedicine technology in The Virtual Hospital Trial: methods of a randomized effectiveness trial. Trials 14:280.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!

order custom essay paper

What Will You Get?

We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.

Experienced Writers

Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.

24/7 Customer Support

Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.

Complete Confidentiality

Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.

Authentic Sources

We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.

Order Tracking

You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9650+ Students for Writing

From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.

Preferred Writer

Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.

Grammar Check Report

Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.

One Page Summary

You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.

Plagiarism Report

You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Delegate Your Challenging Writing Tasks to Experienced Professionals

Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality

All samples
Article review
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Research paper
Article review
A Holistic Response to Crime Victimization
View this sample
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Post Covid-19 Economic Recovery
View this sample
Research paper
Final Case Analysis: Organizational Ethical Dilemmas
Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)
Business Studies
View this sample
Research paper
Communicable Disease
View this sample
Research paper
Mental health
View this sample

It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


We Analyze Your Problem and Offer Customized Writing

We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

We Mirror Your Guidelines to Deliver Quality Services

We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • Active communication to understand requirements.

We Handle Your Writing Tasks to Ensure Excellent Grades

We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.

  • Thorough research and analysis for every order.
  • Deliverance of reliable writing service to improve your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now

error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code UNRIVALED