Production of genetically engineered animals


The debate about human cloning was carried out within the field of science fiction and fantasy, until recently. With the victorious cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1997, it became obvious that earlier or later, scientists might be able to clone human beings too. There is both encouragement and disagreement for this likelihood. Though cloning has been explained by newspapers and magazines as an exhilarating step onward that allows genetic engineers to lessen the qualms of reproduction, they have also made available comments by religious figures, scientists, and others who view human cloning as an assault on human dignity. (Cloning: The science of Controversy)

In Greek the word clone means taking an intersection from a plant. To make a correct genetic copy of an available life form is cloning. In many plants and even a few animals cloning takes place by itself. Except for identical twins, this phenomenon does not occur naturally in mammals and humans. As seen clearly this is very dissimilar from cloning when it comes to the moral side. Dolly has made all that different. She was shaped by a procedure known as nuclear transfer, by which cells from the udder of an ewe was taken and reprogramming was done to make a new embryo and the embryo was placed in another ewe. This is a biological transformation. It was considered impractical to create a mammal from a body tissue. Could it be done in humans, if it is possible in sheep and now cattle and mice also, Should it be, if it could be? (Human Cloning – The Ethical Issues)

In the reproductive technology, cloning is the next sensible move is the squabble by some people. The supporters of cloning argue that the reproductive cloning can be considered as a technological form of a natural course, as identical twins are natural clones. Why shouldn’t a couple be capable to create clones of them, if they are sterile? Why shouldn’t the couple, if they have lost a child be capable to replace that dear one with a clone if it is possible? It seems like a good thought to produce someone who has made an immense contribution to science, music, the arts or literature in the expectation that we might gain even more from what would productively be a much longer working life. (The pros and cons of human reproductive cloning) The outlook of the people who support human cloning is that a number of amazing profits can be achieved from cloning technology. (Human Cloning is beneficial0

The cloning technology is built-up as a means to advance the production of genetically engineered animals. By growing genetically engineered animals like cows or goats that exude chemicals and proteins of worth to humans and produce human blood clotting agents in their milk, vast financial gains can be made. Scientists must hereditarily maneuver each individual animal without cloning and which results in very little success rates. But with cloning, the option that scientists need only one perfect animal to clone a whole group from that success. The main aim is not to imitate everything about the animal but only the property that has been engineered into it. (Cloning: The science of Controversy) significant advantage suggested out of cloning is that it is a therapy for childlessness. The reasons for sterility are by genetic defects, wounds to the reproductive organs, hereditary defects and contact to poisonous material and waves. Sterile people can have an advanced possibility of success by human cloning. Many people are not sterile, as they cannot produce feasible gametes. For cloning technology a feasible sperm or egg is not required, any body cell will do. This technology will be able to avoid faulty gametes and permits sterile people to have their own biological children. By cloning technology, suicide, separation, clinical gloominess among sterile people can be stopped. The ideal gene treatment is likely by cloning technology, the real alteration or substitution of flawed gene series. The scientists can take a cell that had its genome adapted and use it to create a progeny, by the cloning technology. The resultant child and its offspring would carry the modified gene in every cell. Muscular dystrophy, Huntington’s disease, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis can be healed by cloning technology. (Human Cloning is beneficial)

The scientists can better appreciate the cell separation by the human cloning which is other’s benefit. New medical interference can be got by the study on the basic procedures of cell separation. Sufferers of spinal cord and burn damages can be supplied with synthetically created surrogate tissues. Injuries caused by degenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes can be upturned. With the aid of a meager dead skin cell, biologists might be able to make organs for transplant. The supporters dispute that moral suggestions concerned in human cloning are only momentary. (Human Cloning is beneficial)

Historically, we see that many bio-conservative moralists who fiercely objected many a great medical advancement in their own time are now seen as an approval. This was the instance with anesthesia when people disputed that it was not natural and that it would deteriorate our moral fibers during childbirth and surgery. Another instance was with heart transplantations, how yucky to take a living heart of one person and put it in the chest of another. In vitro fertilization was another instance; these test tube babies would be dehumanized and would be subject to serious mental exploitation. In the present days, the communal support rate of IVF has increased from 15% in the early seventies to over 70%, heart transplantation is seen as one of medicine’s supreme victories, and anesthesia is taken for granted. (Human Reproductive Cloning from the Perspective of the Future) This is clearly shown in the development of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The antagonists of IVF disputed during the 1960s and 1970s that it was opposed to God’s will, American families would be shattered or changed, and the children would be malformed. Within a few years, it became a usual medical process. (Human Cloning is beneficial) In human cloning also the case will be the same.

What can one study from these historical incidents? We find out from the supporter’s debates that our instant emotional responses to medical improvements are not a dependable guide to their ethics. We can study that we are prejudiced and fail to understand the enduring advantages of technological improvement and are prone to chauvinism. We come to know that yuck aspect should be deeply disbelieved and that it should certainly not be worshiped as a Knowledge of Disgust. With just as much human self-respect as those of us who were considered in other ways, we have to acknowledge a clone with an ethical liability for what she is, a sole human person. The ethical arguments over cloning would have already been long elapsed; by the time the first human clone becomes an adult. The present day antagonists of cloning may have gone off or moved on to being outranged about other things. As we hear today, the clones might be protected having bystanders being referred to by pundits in offensive language. (Human Reproductive Cloning from the Perspective of the Future)

The emotional comfort of the child is another moral quandary. The solitary most significant aspect hurting the quality of a child’s life is the affection and attachment he/she gets from parents and not the techniques or conditions of the person’s birth, is the argument given by the supporters, which we must keep in mind. There is no basis to imagine that with good counseling support for their parents they will not feel the affection and attention they deserve, as the cloned children are presumably the most wanted children. (Human Cloning is beneficial) Even if human cloning doesn’t give huge profits for the world, it’s improbable to do any real harm, as said by less intense supporters. Thus instead of prohibition, cloning must be examined carefully. (Human Cloning: Is making people wrong)

People who disagree with human cloning propose that the idea runs contradictory to the evolutionary need to retain a basic level of genetic variety, and the variety God has created in nature. The implication that one organism is the precise copy of another is given by the term cloning. As they have the similar nuclear genes as the contributor, human clones will be the same. But containing the same genes does not end in two identical persons, as seen in natural monozygotic twins. A clone because of the dissimilar surroundings and situation in which he or she formed her or his life turn into a different person from the person from whom he or she was cloned. Twins may be more alike than clones as most twins are formed and taken care of in the same surroundings in utero and frequently during infancy, though human cloning can be considered of as a kind of belated twinning. Human clones will be unlike in terms of individuality and other uniqueness, as background has a deep impact on improvement. (Human Cloning – The Ethical Issues)

If it were possible for a parent or parents to select a particular gene for their child, it would have been wonderful. Though loving parents would do anything to achieve such impossibility, though they do quite a lot of things for their children socially, it is just not possible to select a gene, and to reproduce an exact carbon copy of the original. People do believe that cloning would produce something of a replica but in actuality it is not true. Furthermore, cloning in several applications is seen to be on the flip side of logic. Parents can write off a child’s upbringing but cannot choose or change their own genes. They think, for e.g., if a child suffers from leukemia, would it be possible to provide a sibling for the doomed child for the sole purpose of donating bone marrow for the other? In this case, the clone would have been made not for his or her own benefit but for the benefit of his or her sibling. In short, it can be said that this is a selfish way of utilizing one person for the benefit of another, something that is totally unacceptable in today’s society. Cloning could probably be used to solve a couple’s infertility problems, but one has to always remember that this too can give rise to other problems.(Human Cloning – The Ethical Issues)

In fact, cloning should not be taken as an answer to infertility or illness; a person can think of his child as extending his own mortality and cloning could be taken as a probable means to this end, particularly since genomes need not be mixed or shared. A person can see his child in terms of living his own life again, or he can even see his clone as his lost child, but the fact is that cloning would not produce an identical replica of the cloned individual- a dead person cannot be replaced, whoever is dead. In some cases there is serious doubt that the cells to be used for cloning can be taken from an individual without his permission, since isolated somatic cells would give rise to clones, unlike as in the normal method of human procreation. (The Ethics of Human Cloning)

If by remote chance this method of cloning becomes a fact, quite a few rules on a therapeutic relationship would have to be laid down and followed. The most important rule would be mutual trust and respect and the cloner’s duty to give the patient’s health primary importance. The moment these rules are bypassed there would be a serious breach of medical ethics. (The Ethics of Human Cloning) Opposers of human cloning are all of the view that this type of vanity-based reproduction is quite disgusting; they feel that the basic freedom of a child would be forever lost and the family as a unit would be faced with extinction, as a child, whether the parents love each other or not, as some parents love each other but do not have children is always a living proof of the parents’ love. (Biotechnology: Cloning)

The very existence of a child is proof of his parents’ mutual love and affection for each other, a child created by God. When such a life begins in a laboratory, it seems like an insult to the very gift of life. When man and woman come together as one as ordained by God, the woman is ripe to take on a new life within her body. Scientific methods of human reproduction can be seen as a slap on human dignity. Cloning lends no dignity to the awesome process of reproduction; instead, it turns the person into a mere thing. The process of cloning can be qualified as a major scientific project wherein quality control can be freely exercised, wherein a person becomes a thing a trait which, though pre-existing in our society, should be condemned. (Human Cloning: Moral Arguments against Human Cloning) The reaction to the word clone, argues molecular biologist Lee M. Silver, is closely related to the different meanings that that particular society or even scientist sees in it. He also feels that actual visions of a human clone will always be a fictional thing. According to him there are several people who are scared by the idea of human cloning. But he believes that their fears have no value of becoming a fact. (Human Cloning: Should We Fear it? Is it copying people?)

Some legal experts also feel that a child born with the basic right to a future which is open would be denied this valuable trait if cloned. He may feel under compulsion from his near and dear to be as unlike his creator as possible. (Biotechnology: Cloning) No research has been undertaken to estimate the psychological strain a child may go through once he discovers that he is nothing but a copy or twin of his parent or brother or sister. He would be at a loss to define his relationship with them- whether he really exists, or whether he is not the real self, as he knows himself. Mush more analyses on these confusing situations have to be done because no one can inflict such a torture on another without being sure of its after effects. (Human Cloning – The Ethical Issues)

There is also a significant physical risk involved in cloning. More than 277 trials were made and 29 embryos were implanted before one healthy sheep ‘Dolly” could be produced. Cloning even leads to dangerous risks during pregnancy as seen in animals. This could be because the study of nuclear transfer is still in its nascent stages. No scientist can definitely say that the cell reprogramming process would produce a completely normal and healthy clone, without significant risk to its mother. Such cloning work on human beings can be considered extremely unethical. In fact, a few researchers would even say that there would not be a time in the near future when cloning can be conducted on humans based on the minimal data from research on animals. (Human Cloning – The Ethical Issues) These arguments are all valid in the scenario of there being a first human clone in the near future. Most researchers do believe that early cloning experiments would only lead to failure and miscarriage, giving rise to any number of aborted fetuses or even grossly deformed babies. A study on mammalian cloning also shows that in most cases the defects in the reprogramming of the egg do not become obvious or even show themselves until a later stage in the animal’s life, leading it to a sudden and unexpected death. (Biotechnology: Cloning)

The topic “cloning” is still under heavy debate. There are varied opinions- while some feel that cloning could be a boon to people with terminal illness, others feel it is a truly unethical process which involves more risks than any true benefit; just because it is possible to clone a human being does not mean that one should do it. Careful handling is necessary for such a subject as cloning. It is all right for animals to be cloned bur human cloning has not reached a standard yet, whether there have been earlier attempts at it or not. I feel that though cloning may be of great benefit to mankind; there are some issues for which a line should never be crossed. The medical field should exercise utmost caution while attempting cloning since it involves a large number of medical procedures. Cloning could lead to situations where a completely new form of genetic and psychological counseling would become a necessity. The need for the evaluation of the ethics of human cloning by doctors and researchers need to be given greater emphasis especially in the case of the role played by the physicians practicing this.

Works Cited

Bostrom, Nick. “Human Reproductive Cloning from the Perspective of the Future.” Yale University. Chair, World Transhumanist Association. 27 December 2002. Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

Hoon H, Tae. “Human Cloning is beneficial”

Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

Human Cloning: Is making people wrong?”

Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

Human Cloning: Moral Arguments against Human Cloning” Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

Human Cloning: Should We Fear it? Is it copying people?” Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

Human Cloning – The Ethical Issues.” SRT Information Sheet, Society, Religion and Technology Project, Church of Scotland. Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

Kolehmainen, Sophia M. “Cloning: The science of Controversy” Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

McGee, Glenn. “Biotechnology: Cloning.” Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning

Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

The Ethics of Human Cloning” Report of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association. June 1999 Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

The pros and cons of human reproductive cloning” Retrieved at Accessed on 02/26/2004

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