Nutrition and Age Related Macular
Nutritional fats and fatty acids are a significant source of energy and an essential part of the human diet. Fatty acids are, in fact, central components of fat molecules. DHA and EPA are two of the most important fatty acids that are found in fleshy fish and other aquatic animals and help in the prevention of macular degeneration. Similar to carbohydrates, essential fatty acids are also important for the maintenance of eye health. They are known for supporting the cardiovascular, immune, nervous and reproductive systems of human beings. Their intake is also important because they are helpful in the development of vision and facilitate the functioning of retina. If an individual’s DHA/EPA levels are low, he/she has a higher risk of dry eye syndrome. The lack of DHA/EPA in the human body can also causes diseases like AMD and diabetic retinopathy (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009).
It is not a secret that a human body is not capable of creating all the essential fatty acids it needs. Therefore, it becomes essential for us to get the essential fatty acids through the intake of appropriate diet and/or nutritional supplements. Scientists recommend that an individual must consume 500 mg/day of essential fatty acids. Cooked Halibut, Mackarel, Salmon, Scallops, Snapper, Trout and Tuna are the best sources of DHA and EPA. Oil-canned Anchovy is also another important source of essential fatty acids i.e. DHA and EPA (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009).
DHA performs a vital role in the functioning of the retina. It is evident from the fact that if premature born children are not provided DHA supplements, they could have a dawdling development of optical sharpness as compared to the children who are supplemented with this essential fatty acid. When experiments were conducted on rat retina, it was found out that DHA helps in the prevention of reparations of oxidative stress, a key aspect of aging. A different experiment on monkeys demonstrated that nutritional utilisation in the retina of animals gets better that are given omega-3 fatty acids. Simultaneously, it also lessens the harmful effects of oxidative damage. Therefore, the people should be encouraged to make fatty fish a regular part of their diet or they should begin to take omega-3 nutritional supplements. The standard of prophylactic cure with omega-3 fatty acids must be initiated in an early age so that the development of degenerative diseases like ARMD could be prevented. This is exceedingly necessary as ARMD is one of those disabling diseases that could condense life expectancy and relentlessly diminish quality-of-life for older people (Bryhn, 2006).
As already discussed, age-related macular degeneration is a universal disease that leads to permanent blindness. The number of older people who have got this hindering disease will rise, as more citizens are reaching high age. However, high ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids can put a stop to the development of macular degeneration. It has been observed that regular intake of fish (1-3 fish meals for every month) prevented the growth of ARMD. A high intake of fish has demonstrated a thirty-five percent lower risk of macular degeneration as compared to people who only infrequently consume fish meals (Bryhn, 2006).
A weekly intake of fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids possibly will decrease the hazard of developing age-related macular degeneration. The nutritional intakes of 2,258 Australians were followed by the researchers of University of Sydney for 5 years. They found out that people who consumed fish three times a week reduced their risk of ARMD by 70%. On the other hand, people consumed about one fish portion every week reduced their risk of early AMD development by 40%. Researchers have concluded that diets short of omega-3 fatty acids may perhaps lead to unusual metabolism in the retina upsetting cell restoration (“Food in the News,” 2006, p. 78).
The reason why scientists believe that the omega-3 fat DHA is good for eyes is because the retina is made of DHA structurally. Moreover, it is not only important in supporting the structure of the retina but also protects the eye against inflammation. The question is whether omega-3 fats slow down or prevent macular degeneration? When the central part of the retina known as macula dries up, it becomes impossible for the people to see the particulars finely and distinguish faces. According to Chew, “people who ate fish at least twice a week had almost a 50% reduction in the risk of advanced macular degeneration compared to people who never ate fish” (as qtd. In Liebman, 2007). DHA also protects the eye from retinopathy. It is a condition retina is affected by the growth of abnormal blood in it. According to the researchers, if an individual just makes a 2% change in his/her diet; he/she may have a 50% less chance of having an eye disease in the future (Liebman, 2007).
In order to function properly, the rods and cones of the macula require a definite amount of omega-3. Omega-6 fatty acids are not required by the human beings, on the other hand. However, large quantities of common vegetable oils that are mostly consumed by people contain omega-6 fatty acids that is the cause of increasing risk of macular degeneration. Therefore, it is very necessary to reduce the consumption of omega-6 and avoid packaged foods containing vegetable oil. The oils that should be used are olive and canola oil containing omega-6 fatty acids. On the other hand, fish oil and flaxseed oil must be consumed for omega-3 fatty acids (Mogk & Mogk, 2004).
All through their lives, human beings require micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in small quantities. They are important for performing a whole range of physiological functions. However, human beings are not capable of producing them. Therefore, certain foods and supplements are required to be consumed for getting these micronutrients. More than fifty essential nutrients including vitamins and minerals are known for their significance for the human body. There has been a very active research that is going on regarding nutrition and the eye. The obtained information is useful because it recommends vitamin and mineral sources and supplements that can help in the prevention of eye diseases like age-related macular degeneration (Brown, Bron, Harding & Dewar, 1998).
The Vitamin A has been known for its importance in several body functions. However, it is particularly recognized for its importance in vision (Mather, 1999). It is particularly important in the formation of the photoreceptor pigments of the retina (Brown, Bron, Harding & Dewar, 1998). A person with a lack of Vitamin A can have a defective night vision (Brown, Bron, Harding & Dewar, 1998) or become permanently blind (Mather, 1999). The health of the ocular surface is also maintained by Vitamin A and in case of its deficiency, keratomalacia may occur (Brown, Bron, Harding & Dewar, 1998).
Lutein and zeaxanthin are related to Vitamin A and are the members of the carotenoid family of antioxidants. Lutein is significantly known for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Fruits and vegetables that are red, yellow, orange and green are pigmented by carotenoids such as lutein. Lutein and zeaxanthin are highly assessed as significant nutrients due to the fact that they are fundamental in the protection of the retina against free radical destruction that causes ARDM. Both these nutrients are extremely essential. Therefore, they must be taken as a supplement too because only food cannot provide enough of them (Mather, 1999).
Lutein and zeaxanthin are found together in spinach, kale, collards, green peas, broccoli, parsley, green beans, eggs, tangerines, Swiss chard, oranges, turnip greens, romaine lettuce and corn. These nutrients are deposited in the macula, retina and lens through diet and supplementation. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) calculates the amount of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula. Both these nutrients help in the protection and maintenance of healthy cells by acting as antioxidants. They also help in the filtration of cells-damaging high-energy blue wavelengths of light by functioning as an internal pair of sunglasses. Research demonstrates that taking lutein and zeaxanthin supplements can increase MPOD levels in the eye at a significant rate. It becomes possible for the individuals with higher MPOD levels to tolerate the intensity of glaring light. Such individuals can also recover from glare in a short time. Higher levels of MPOD also help the individuals to have an increased visual range and visual performance. They percept objects more clearly and respond to varying environmental conditions more quickly. The individuals with higher MPOD are also able to notice bits and pieces unmistakably even in faint light. Doctors recommend 10mg of lutein supplementation a day and 2mg of zeaxanthin supplementation a day (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009).
To cut a long story short, an addition of extra amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin in one’s diet can decrease the risk of ARMD. The early stage of the disease, age-related maculopathy, can also be benefitted by the supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin. Thus, the deposition of lutein and zeaxanthin as a layer (macular pigment) gives the eye a built-in protection. This is the reason why people with a higher density of macular pigment have a reduced risk of macular degeneration in their old age (“Macular Degeneration Could Be,” 2004, p. 13). It is, therefore, necessary to eat fresh or frozen vegetables for ingesting lutein (Mogk & Mogk, 2004).
The supplemental use of folic acid and B. vitamins can help in the prevention of age related macular degeneration. This was proved when women were treated with Vitamin B supplements and followed for 7.3 years and it was concluded that they had a 35 — 40% decreased risk of macular degeneration (Christen, Glynn, Chew, Albert & Manson, 2009).
According to the scientists, there is a direct connection between homocysteine (an amino acid) level in the blood and the threat of ARMD. However, the treatment with folic acid and B. vitamins demonstrated that they have the potential to lower the homocysteine levels in an individual’s blood. When homocysteine levels are high, it causes dysfunctioning of the blood vessel lining. However, when treated with vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid, the homocysteine levels are reduced resulting in the reversal of the blood vessel dysfunction. Not only does the homocysteine level are lowered, B vitamins and folic acid were also found to improve the functioning of blood vessels in the eye (Christen, Glynn, Chew, Albert & Manson, 2009).
The unprocessed foods are rich in Vitamin B Meat products contain Vitamin B in an adequate quantity. Other than that, whole grains, molasses, bananas, potatoes, beans, chilli peppers and lentils also contain Vitamin B It is, therefore, really important to include Vitamin B rich foods in the diet to prevent age-related macular degeneration.
Vitamin E is also a member of the antioxidant family. Nuts, fortified cereals and sweet potatoes are the excellent sources of Vitamin E This vitamin is particularly beneficial for the eyes as it helps in the promotion of cell membranes and repairmen of DNA. It also is known for its significance in the functioning of the immune system. According to the research and concluded evidence, Vitamin E could prove to be beneficial in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration by twenty five percent and visual acuity loss by nineteen percent. 22.5 IU of Vitamin E a day has been recommended as a daily dose. However, as far as the eye health is concerned, doctors suggest 400 IU a day. Therefore, it is important to intake almond, hazelnuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, creamy/chunky peanut butter and cereal that are all rich in Vitamin E (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009). However, Vitamin E supplementation is also necessary.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble nutrient. It is highly valued because of its excellent antioxidant properties. As it is significantly known for its capability of neutralizing free radicals and minimizing oxidative damage, Vitamin C is recommended for the prevention age-related macular degeneration. A daily dosage of 500 mg of Vitamin C daily can reduce the rate of development of macular degeneration (“Vitamin C,” 2012). Vitamin sC works to counterbalance or deactivate the potentially cell-damaging molecules called ‘free radicals’ that cause harm to the lens and macular of the eyes.
Citrus fruits (oranges, lemons), berries, strawberries, guava, kiwi, sweet peppers/red peppers, Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, cantaloupe, broccoli, parsley, and dark leafy greens contain the highest quantities of Vitamin C If one wants to maximize the benefits of vitamin C benefits, he/she must make sure that he/she takes vitamin C several times a day for the maintenance of adequate serum levels as this water-soluble vitamin rapidly excretes (“Vitamin C,” 2012).
Zinc is an important mineral that plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of the retina and eyes’ lens. It is a vital component of a number of enzymes. Therefore, it is really important for the many metabolic activities of the body. Zinc ions are a main constituent of superoxide dismutase (enzyme). This enzyme plays a chief role in the foraging of superoxide radicals. The concentration of zinc in the retina and choroid is on the whole one of the maximum levels in the body, Therefore, it is not an untold secret that zinc is especially important for the eye. There is an association of zinc with vitamin A and together they are responsible for the generation of the visual pigments of the retina. Even in the presence of adequate vitamin A in the body, the lack or absence of zinc can cause night blindness. Similar to anti-oxidant vitamins, this essential mineral plays an anti-oxidant role (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009).
When elderly individuals who have early retinal macular degeneration were supplemented with zinc, it was found out that their visual acuity was maintained in a very good way as compared to those who were not given zinc supplements. Studies have demonstrated that zinc plays a specific role in the maintenance of retinal health. In the same way, this anti-oxidant mineral is important in the maintenance of the health of the lens of the eye (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009).
Oysters and fish, ginger root, Brazil nuts, meat, pumpkin seeds, eggs, pecans, lentils and cereals are rich sources of zinc. Doctors recommend that a daily zinc supplement must be 20mg. The intake of zinc supplements may possibly reduce the copper levels in the body. Therefore, copper supplements are also necessary along with zinc supplements (“Diet, Nutrition and,” 2009).
If compared with other tissues in the human body, concentrations of zinc are higher in the retina. It serves as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes and thus helps in the protection of the eye from age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases. It also has the ability to provide protection against inflammatory effects (Blodi, 2004).
If a person already is experiencing macular degeneration, it is the right time and really important for him/her to starts taking a first-rate multivitamin and mineral supplement. If a person is at a higher risk for the development of macular degeneration or if he/she is already having early signs of it, consumption of supplements would help him/her to prevent or retard the development of macular degeneration.
With aging, people become highly at risk to lose their central vision. However, if they eat adequate levels of some particular dietary nutrients, it could help them in the protection of their eyes. According to a recent study, people who have an inherited vulnerability to macular degeneration, eating sufficient levels of zinc, antioxidants or omega-3 fatty acids minimizes the risk of development of this retinal-damaging disease by as much as a third contrasted with people who eat inadequate levels of the mentioned nutrients. According to some researchers, “Clinicians should provide dietary advice to young susceptible individuals to postpone or prevent the vision-disabling consequences of (age-related macular degeneration” (as qtd. In “Diet Tied to Lower,” 2011, p. NA). It has also been found out that age-related macular degeneration is a widespread disabling disease and accounts for half of all blindness cases in urbanized countries.
As far as only United States is concerned, macular degeneration affects more than 6 out of every hundred adults over age forty. Despite the fact that medications and surgery can treat the affected patients, not any of these heals the disease. If an individual has at least two gene variations, he/she is susceptible to develop the condition. CFH, a variation, boosts his/her chances of ARMD up to 11-fold. Another variation known as LOC387715S raises this likelihood by up to 15-fold. People with the CFH variation can reduce their chance of macular degeneration if they consume greater levels of either zinc, beta carotene, omega-3 fatty acids or lutein/zeaxanthin in the diet (“Diet Tied to Lower,” 2011, p. NA).
Although, there is presently no cure for this disabling disease, the severity of macular degeneration can be reduced if there is an early treatment. The category and level of the condition can signify what type of treatment is required. The treatments include laser surgery, dietetic involvement and low vision aids to help peripheral vision (“Millions Affected by Eye,” 2004, p. 1). However, the simplest treatment is to eat wisely as that can prove to be a protective ointment for our eyes. As already discussed, the key foods and nutrients are, without a doubt, an easy, straightforward and inexpensive treatment option that can help an individual to protect his/her vision (“Eating Right Can Help,” 2010, p. 2).
Blodi, B.A. (2004). Nutritional Supplements in the Prevention of Age-related Macular Degeneration.INSIGHT The Journal of the American Society of Ophthalmic Registered Nurses, Inc., XXIX (1), 15-18. Retrieved June 14, 2012 from http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/asorn/CE/2004-03-AMD.pdf
Brown, N.A., Bron, A.J., Harding, J.J., & Dewar, H.M. (1998). Nutrition Supplements and the Eye . Eye,12, 127-133. Retrieved June 14, 2012 from http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v12/n1/pdf/eye199821a.pdf
Bryhn, M. (2006). Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Age-Related Eye Diseases. Retrieved June 13, 2012 from http://www.epax.com/filestore/Omega-3FAandpreventionofage-relatedeyedisease.pdf
Christen, W.G., Glynn, R.J., Chew, E.Y., Albert, C.M., & Manson, J.E. (2009). Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Combination and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Randomized Trial of Women. Arch Intern Med., 169(4), 335-341. Retrieved June 14, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2648137/?tool=pubmed
Diet, Nutrition and Eye Health. (2009). Retrieved June 13, 2012 from http://www.aoa.org/documents/nutrition/Diet_Nutrition_Eye_Health_booklet.pdf
Eating Right Can Help Protect Your Eyesight. (2010, July 5). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), p. 2. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5043622420
Food in the News. (2006, November/December). The Saturday Evening Post, 278, 78. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035801225
Liebman, B. (2007, October). Omega Medicine? Is Fish Oil Good for What Ails You?. Nutrition Action Healthletter, 34, 1+. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028579508
Macular Degeneration Could Be Slowed with Lutein. (2004, Fall). Nutrition Health Review 13. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037690092
Mather, A. (1999, February). A Girl’s Best Friends. Vegetarian Times90+. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036637386
Millions Affected by Eye Disease. (2004, May 16). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), p. 1. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008026535
Mogk, L.G., & Mogk, M. (2004, July/August). Genes, Greens, and Oils: the Causes, Prevention, and Natural Treatment of Amd. The Saturday Evening Post, 276, 34+. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036451304
Vitamin C (2012). Retrieved June 14, 2012 from http://www.macular-degeneration-vitamins.com/eye-nutrients/vitamin-c/
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.