Navajo and European Witchcraft: A Brief Study

Navajo and European Witchcraft: A Brief Study

As might be expected, there are some similarities to be found between Native American Navajo witchcraft and European witchcraft. The reason being, of course, that “witchcraft” denotes a term that is supernatural in nature, unique as to the individual or individuals possessing that nature or power, and because it is a condition that suggests people who do not possess that nature or power might be fearful of that which they do not know or understand, it empowers the person who does possess the witchcraft to in some ways manipulate or control others. In this way then we might expect to find some similarities as well as differences as suggested by the term between two distinctly different cultures and geographical locations. This essay will explore some of the similarities and differences between Navajo and European witchcraft in order to identify the similarities and differences.

Navajo Background

There is a hypothesis about how the Navajo came to be on the North American continent. Believed to be descendants of the North Asian race of Genghis Khan, it theorized that members of the clan crossed the frozen Bering Sea, making their way into North America where they flourished as a race (Coolidge, Dane and Coolidge, Mary Roberts, 1930:3). “The archeological proof of this migration is still lacking, and may be for years to come, but no one who is acquainted with the legends of Dineh can doubt the evidence they offer (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3).” The Navajo are of Athapascanian stock, whose people reside “From the Bering Strait, to the shores of the Hudson Bay and from the Arctic Ocean to the American line (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3),” down the Pacific coast, however never along the coast itself, but inland; and they are then traced along a trail of a southern migration (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3). Thus, it is believed was the path and people who are the ancestors of New Mexico’s Navajo Nation (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3).

Dineh” translates to “The People,” the Athapascans of the north refer to themselves as Tinneh, and their Apache relatives call themselves N’de or Tinde; but with some dialectic variations, most notably on the accent (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3). They, like their Mongolian ancestors, were raiders who scourged the land using force and violence (Coolidge, 1930:3). Eventually, with the colonization of America and the westward movement, they were subdued by European descendants who had colonized America (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3). While the two groups, the Navajo and the white Americans, proved formidable adversaries, the documented descriptions of the Navajo by the whites bear testimony to the Navajo strength, courage and intelligence (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930:3). It should be noted here, too, that the title of “Navajo” is one of Spanish origin, and not a title accepted by “The People (Coolidge and Coolidge, 1930; 12).”

Navajo Traditions in Witchcraft

Navajo prayer and ceremony are structured in a way to bring about certain changes in geographical location, individual or individuals, and especially to disperse or remove foreign or native malevolence (Gail, Sam D., 1981: 37). The elements of prayer have been studied and documented by researchers as (Gail, 1981: 37):

Association/identification with a holy person.

Injunction to effect.

Assertion to effect.

Removal and dispersion of foreign malevolence.

Procurement of protection. Removal and destruction native malevolence. Recovery and restoration of the lost Earth Surface Person.

All Navajo prayers, of which there are many, can be classified into these groups. Only holy people can invoke the prayers, and, if affected by the invocation, only a holy person may remove the prayer (Gail, 1981:38). Those which would occur without the invocation of the holy person are deemed to be committed by witchcraft (Gail, 1981:38).

A theme which emerges with increasing urgency as the emergence of journey proceeds is the need to establish dependable relationships to bring about an orderly world. The sequence of acts which lead only to watery chaos begins by negative means to determine the necessary character of the desired world. The people who are to direct the creation of a new world upon emergence, First Man and First Woman, are born and are given the sacred objects from which will arise the form of the new world. Yet along with their acquisition of certain powers of creation, First Man and First Woman also learned the ways of Witchcraft (Gail, 1981:51).”

In other words, there are worlds above, below and within; and it is man and woman in the world above who stands in grace, while man and woman in the world below are men and women of ghostly apparition, the dead, and witches (Gail, 1981:51).

European Witchcraft

Because the origins of European descendants in America are well-known, as are the origins of Europeans throughout the European continent; it is possible to dispense with that history and to go to the point of the analysis of this essay and examine European witchcraft.

In European studies, the understanding of witchcraft begins with a understanding of language (Clark, Stuart, 1999:3). That is, the “terms in which they were expressed, and the general systems of meaning they presupposed (Stuart, 1999:3), and in what ways the language lends itself to the belief set in overall terms (Stuart, 1999:3).

In consequence, it has been possible to account for witchcraft beliefs (like any others) in only two ways. First, they have been submitted, if only implicitly, to empirical verification to see whether they correspond to the real activities of real people. With important exceptions, the answer has been ‘no.’ The entity ‘witchcraft’ has turned out to be a non-entity, because for the most part it had no referents in the real world (Stuart, 1999:3).”

In other words, the art of European witchcraft deals with entities, powers, or persons that are not of or on this plane.

In European history, witchcraft and paganism share their roots, and it is the monotheistic Christian tradition that caused paganism to give way to Christianity, and those who continued to practice the rituals, prayers, and worship pagan gods were not just heretics, but often identified as witches (Stuart, 1999).

The Similarities and Differences Between Navajo and European Witchcraft

This essay is too brief to go into the detail needed to completely exemplify the similarities and differences between Navajo and European witchcraft. However, it is in the history of both peoples where the similarities are found, and, likewise, where the differences arise.

First, the Navajo by way of their Asian traditions from an ancient time, pursued stories of creation and the end of life, and compensated for those things which they did not understand or which mystified them with stories, prayers, and rituals. To the extent that they could not fully understand or explain something, they turned to shamans, or holy men, to explain those things for them; or, by way of ritual and prayer, to protect the People from them unknowns which might harm or adversely impact their lives. This is found to be much the same in the European tradition, as Europeans, like the Navajo, have traditions and rituals that were rooted in pagan eras and addressed those things about the world and universe that could not be explained or understood by the majority of the people.

The noticeable difference between the Navajo and European notions of witchcraft begins with the Christian tradition. The Navajo, unlike the Europeans, did not practice monotheism, but continued to divide their gratitude and place the blame for those environmental and social conditions that impacted their lives amongst their various deities. The Europeans, like the Navajos, relied upon holy men to pray and perform rituals for their protection, and to exorcise them from the demons that possessed their spirits and brought chaos into their lives and world.

European and Navajo witchcraft are deeply mired in psychological conditions that lend themselves to the belief of that mysticism (Towner, Ronald H., 1996:231) (Stevens, Phillip, 1997:49). This psychological precondition of susceptibility seems to be the most significant prevailing factor that link the two belief sets.

Works Cited

Clark, Stuart. Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Questia. 10 Nov. 2007


Coolidge, Dane, and Mary Roberts Coolidge. The Navajo Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930. Questia. 10 Nov. 2007


Gill, Sam D. Sacred Words: A Study of Navajo Religion and Prayer. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981. Questia. 10 Nov. 2007


Stevens, Phillips. “Children, Witches Demons, and Cultural Reality.” Free Inquiry Spring 1997: 49+. Questia. 10 Nov. 2007


Towner, Ronald H., ed. The Archaeology of Navajo Origins. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1996. Questia. 10 Nov. 2007

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!

order custom essay paper

What Will You Get?

We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.

Experienced Writers

Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.

24/7 Customer Support

Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.

Complete Confidentiality

Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.

Authentic Sources

We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.

Order Tracking

You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9650+ Students for Writing

From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.

Preferred Writer

Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.

Grammar Check Report

Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.

One Page Summary

You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.

Plagiarism Report

You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Delegate Your Challenging Writing Tasks to Experienced Professionals

Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality

All samples
Article review
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Research paper
Article review
A Holistic Response to Crime Victimization
View this sample
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Post Covid-19 Economic Recovery
View this sample
Research paper
Final Case Analysis: Organizational Ethical Dilemmas
Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)
Business Studies
View this sample
Research paper
Communicable Disease
View this sample
Research paper
Mental health
View this sample

It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


We Analyze Your Problem and Offer Customized Writing

We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

We Mirror Your Guidelines to Deliver Quality Services

We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • Active communication to understand requirements.

We Handle Your Writing Tasks to Ensure Excellent Grades

We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.

  • Thorough research and analysis for every order.
  • Deliverance of reliable writing service to improve your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now

error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code UNRIVALED