Population and Migration in Algeria

Algeria is a county found in the Northern part of Africa. It has a Mediterranean coastline, and some parts of Sahara Desert occupies the country. The current population of Algeria 43,542,641, which is a representation of around 0.56% population of the people in the world. The people of females is21,697,235, making 49.5% of total Algeria’s population while males are22,153,808, making 50.5% of total Algeria’s population. The ratio of males to females is 1.02. The country is mostly made up of young aged people, with 70% of the total population being under the age of 30 years. The median age of the country is 28.5 years.The population pyramid of Algeria.

With a total area of land being 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world and the largest country in Africa. The population density in the country is 18 per square kilometre. A large number of inhabitants of this country lives in urban cities, making about 72.63% of the total population. The five cities with the highest number of communities are Algiers with a total number of 1,977,663 people, Boumerdas with 786,499 people, Oran with 645,984 people, Tébessa with 634,332 people and Constantine with 450,097 people. These cities are distributed across the country.

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The difference between the crude birth rate and crude death rate of a county is known as the Rate of Natural Increase (RNI). In return, the results of RNI calculation reflects of hoe population in each country is growing. In this year, the RNI of Algeria is expected to be positive. This is because the population of births will exceed the community of deaths by861,741. For the past years, the people of this county has been increasing. Therefore, it is possible to predict the people of the country in future years using the country’s growth rate.

The time that the population of a given country takes to double itself is known as the doubling time. Increasing time for a given community that is growing exponentially can be dot using rule of 70. It is done by a division of 70 by the rate of growth (r). The doubling time for Algeria is estimated to be 30 years. In relation, after every thirty years, the population of Algeria increase two times. Putting every factor in constant, the people of Algeria can be approximated after every 30 years.

In demography, life expectancy is a measure of time in average an individual can live regarding the year of birth and the age an individual is in currently. Other demographic factors, such as geographical location and gender, can influence the life expectancy of an individual. In Algeria, the life expectancy is 76. 95 years which is an increase of 0.24% from last year(2019). Life expectancy in Algeria has been increasing for the past few years ranking the country the 54th in the world in terms of having high life expectancy. Factors such as free medical health care may have led to an increase in life expectancy.

The number of individuals who are dependent on each population divided by the number of working individuals is known as the dependency ratio. It reflects the extent of an economy’s pressure in supporting the proportion of society, which is not productive. In a community, the dependents include individuals in non-working that if between 0 and 14 and 65 and above ages. The working-age comprises of individuals between the age of 14 and 64. The dependency ratio of Algeria is 41.7%, indicating that there is a higher number of working individuals than the dependents. This may be as a result of the country having a young aged population.

In Algeria, a total of 26,267,501 individuals between the ages of 15 and above are literate meaning they are capable of reading and writing. The literacy rate has been growing at a rate of 14.13% in the previous years. High literacy level may be as a result of free and compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 and 15. Also, it is mandatory for individuals to acquire primary and lower secondary school. In this regard, most individuals in the country can read and write.

The average income in Algeria is approximately 220,000 DZD in a month. The salary ranges between 29,800 DZD to 976,000 DZD. The cost of living in the Algiers is around 47,878.30DZD in a month excluding rent. Comparing to a state like New York, the cost of living is lower by 68.01%.

Algeria possesses a lot of natural resources such as oil, solar energy, zinc, silicon, iron and helium. The country can exploit its resource well hence making in an upper-middle-class country in terms of income. Export of oil has made significant contribution in raising the economy of the country. However, the citizens of Algeria are poor. Various factors have contributed to the citizen’s poverty. Prices of oil falling in the international market made the economy of Algeria to fall, which led to an increase in unemployment levels hence poverty among the citizens. Political instability, government spending and lack of democracy in the country have also led to poverty among citizens.

In terms of the stage of the demographic transition model, Algeria being a developing country is in step two. Various factors have made the country to be in phase two. To start with, countries in stage two has a high birthrate and a decrease in the death rate. In return, the population of a country increases as a result of birth rates outnumbering the death rates. Therefore, it is not necessarily that birthrate will increase for the community to continue growing. Death rates in a country may be as a result of improvement of health facilities and availability of pediatric care which in return reduces death rate to a group of population which has a high probability of losing a life.

Algeria has been experiencing rapid population growth. The population doubles after every 30 years. In 1962 when Algeria got its independence from the French, its population was 11.6 million. Since then, there has been population increase resulting in a total population of 41.3 million in 2017, and now in 2020, the community stands at 43,542,641. The country has witnessed a 2.2% increase in population per year. In this regard, there has been a housing problem as many individuals in the country move to cities.

In the 1960s, the government of Algeria did ignore the option of population control through family planning. However, in the 1980s, the country took family planning as control of fertility was one of the factors which were affecting the growth of the population. For effective family planning, factors such as education, improving the women’s status, women having employment which have gain and social responsibility should be put in consideration failure to which it may fail to be effective. Increase in population also arises as many families adopt the idea of family planning after they already have many children hence making it ineffective. In this regard, the empowering of families on the importance of family planning is vital. Involving social and economic sectors can also help in making family planning effective. In return, Algeria will be able to control the population.

Algeria has been experiencing constant population increase over the past years hence making the country’s population high. High society is as a result of early marriages in the country, which has increased the childbearing age for women. Higher birthrate than death rate and other religious factors has also led to an increase in population. In return, cases of unemployment have increased as available resources fail to meet the growing community, which has led to an increasing in the poverty level among the citizens. Housing problems have also become a problem of concern in the country.

Considering that the country’s population is made up of 70% of people under the age of 30 years, with a median age of 27 years, the county is made up of the young population. The population comprising of a high percentage of the working population, there is the high rate of unemployment among the youths. High unemployment has led to increasing levels of poverty in the country. As many teenagers prefer staying in urban areas, expand in migration to cities has led to housing problems as the available accommodation cannot hold the high population. In this regard, there has been the development of shantytowns in the country. Unemployment and housing problems have led to low living standards among the people.

There has been regular internal immigration in Algeria. Various reasons have led to internal migration. Poor conditions in terms of economy in some regions has led to most individuals to migrate to areas that seem favourable to habit. In return, this has led to a population increase in some areas while a decrease in population happens in others. In search of employment, youths have moved from rural areas to urban areas resulting in congestion and housing problems. Due to migration to urban areas in search of jobs, the labour force in rural areas has been decreasing. In this regard, the government has been trying to come up with job-creating projects in rural areas to reduce rural-urban migration.

Many Algerians have migrated out of their country for various reasons. Most individuals have migrated to France, making around a total of 3.46% of the total population in France. Migration of Algerians to France started as early as 1920. Political turmoil in the country led to many people to migrate to France in the 1960s. In the past, factors such as business pressure which led to the need for many workers made a contribution to the movement of people to France. Other reasons that has made Algerians to migrate to other countries currently is education related reasons, political reasons and in search for employment.

Net migration is the difference between number of individuals coming in the country and the number of individuals leaving the country. Currently, net migration stands at -0.231 per 1000 individuals. This is a decline of 1.7% from the previous year. This means that the number of individuals leaving the country is higher than the number of individuals entering the country.

the graph of net migration from 1955 to 2015

Push factors makes an individual to migrate voluntarily from one area to another. It can be as a result of an individual risking something if they fail to migrate. Some of the push factors in Algeria include poor economy in some areas, lack pf employment, conflict and pollical instability. In this regard individuals move from one area to another in search of favorable areas where they can thrive in.

Pull factors are attracts individuals to leave their home resettle in new areas. These factors are said to be place utility which is the ability of a place to attract people. Such factors include good economic conditions, more jobs and employment opportunities. For example, Algerians moving from their country to France with a belief of better conditions can be termed as a pull factor.

Algeria has put migration policies in place to regulate migration. The policies are also meant to preserve national sovereignty and as a strong country economically, Algeria wants to prevent itself from back mail from other countries. The country also prohibits illegal moving out of the country which is punishable by six months imprisonment. Individuals who smuggle refugees also face a jail term of twenty years. Algerians also have low chances of getting political asylum as a result of the civil war that took place in the country. The number of immigrants in the country is also low though the country allows immigration. Also, Algeria controls the number of immigrants in the country at all costs. Other factors that has led to migration policies include the problem of local population and terrors caused by Boko Haram.



Abado, S., & Khennas, S. (2019). Algeria Beyond Oil and Natural Gas. The Politics of Algeria,   32-47. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429447495-3

Cervellati, M., & Sunde, U. (2017). The Demographic Transition and Long-Term Development.   Demographic Change and Long-Run Development.            https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262036627.003.0001

Laaredj-Campbell, A. (2015). Geographic Location and Demography. Changing Female Literacy             Practices in Algeria, 31-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-11633-0_2

Pfeifer, K. (2019). Economic Liberalization in the 1980s: Algeria in Comparative Perspective.       State and Society in Algeria, 97-116. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429307393-5

Turner, B. (2018). Algeria, Economy of. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 243-244.             https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_2879



population pyramid of Algeria 2019 population distribution in Algeria

Population distribution of Algeria


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