Google: Leadership vs. Management
In assessing how Google has been able to succeed in intensively competitive industries including online search, advertising, and providing licensing of their technologies for use within corporations and governments globally, their leadership and management practices need to be taken into account. The intent of this paper is to analyze how the differences in management vs. leadership within Google significantly influence their ability to attract, retain, challenge and ultimately give their employees an opportunity to grow personally and professionally. The culture of Google is nonconformist to the traditional software company, concentrating more on giving employees freedom to pursue their own projects up to 20% of their work time (Taylor, 2009). Called the Rule of 20% Time, this practice is now responsible for a significant 50% of all new products for the company (Taylor, 2009). Microsoft has on the other hand relied more on a top-down hierarchy with clear yet at times inflexible lines of authority (Anders, 2007). To manage such a nonconformist and non-traditional approach to the development of Internet services, software development, and rapid application development takes a very unique leadership and management mentality. This paper examines and analyzes why Google continues to be successful at innovating despite their exponential revenue and employee growth.
Managing vs. Leading at Google
Microsoft and Google differ significantly from one another in many areas of management and leadership, yet both cultures’ reliance on Expert Power (Humphreys, Pryor, Haden, Oyler, 2009) force these organizations to defy traditional, top-down, hierarchical management structures. They simply do not work when each company must have continuously greater levels of creativity and innovation fueling new products and services. This is a result of team structures moving from being hierarchical to more network-based, and cross-functional in nature over the last two decades (Bennis, 1999). In addition, Expert Power in managers and especially leaders implying greater competency and charisma (Humphreys, Pryor, Haden, Oyler, 2009) has translated to less of a reliance in these company’s cultures on a given manager’s title or experience level. Of the two, Google has been the one to more pervasively internalize into their culture the role of a leader as an active member of a project team who not only directs, but also assists in the completion of complex projects (Hof, 2008).
From this analysis of the Google culture it is clear that management has more to do with the fulfillment of administrative tasks, functions and processes being enabled, and leadership is much more correlated to the project creation process. A leaders’ foundation for effectiveness in the Google culture is based on a platform of credibility that is earned from Expert Power and kept by instilling trust and transparency with team members. This is consistent with the core concept of what makes an effective leader as defined by Bennis (1999). What makes leadership difficult in any company however yet even more so in Google is the fact that for any leader to be effective, their personality, who they are in effect, must be aligned with the needs of those they manage if they are to excel in their role (Maccoby, 2009) (Bennis, 1999). As a result of this critical aspect of leadership in their culture, it is common for Google to hold several interviews with candidates to ensure they have the technical aptitude and also the ability to potentially lead as well (Shipman, 2006). Not only does this hiring process ensure a higher level of technical competency, it also provides Google senior management with a more readily available group of potential technical project team leaders in the future.
For a project or team manager to be effective as a leader in Google they need to quickly get beyond the traditional roles of management, which typically encompass planning, organizing, leading and controlling. This reliance on Legitimate Power is a waste of time for any manager in Google if they hope to get anything accomplished with their teams. Instead, as the research for this paper indicates, a manager can transcend their traditional role and become a leader by concentrating first on earning and keeping the trust of their team members (Maccoby, 2007) and by seeking to create more collaborative groups structures and approaches to attaining shared goals (Bennis, 1999). This is admittedly quite complex and very difficult to do in a company known for hiring the most analytical, intelligent, skeptical and questioning engineering talent available. The common purpose of a project team and its accomplishment must be internalized by each team member if it is to be attained (Bennis, 1999). At Google, managers who transform themselves into leaders have this ability to gain the collaborative efforts of their teams through credibility and rewarding team members with rewards relevant to them. The leader as servant becomes a critical part of success for anyone leading a team at Google; they must know and understand the needs of those who work for them. This includes the need for recognition, need for mastery of a given area, and most critically for Google’s engineering and development talent, the need for professional respect as being the best in the industry at what they do. Leaders in Google must do this while at the same time keeping clarity in place with regard to roles, setting the expectation that individual and team performance will be exceptional always, and that both the team and the leader don’t evade problems or challenges, they face them. All of these factors together will over time create a level of transparency that fuels the relationship between leaders and team members (Maccoby, 2007). All of these factors combined then form the expectations and foundation of a leader in Google vs. A manager. The differences are significant and make the difference if a team or project manager lasts in the culture or not. Given how extensive the recruiting process is in Google and fact that the most common reason employees leave a company is due to their manager, Google has been known to seek advice on how to get rid of bureaucratic managers for fear they will lose valuable employees as a result (Maccoby, 2009). Leadership is much more difficult to attain in Google, yet its results speak for themselves, with the company being one of the most prolific in terms of generation new product ideas than any other in its comparable short history.
Why Google Sees Globalization as a Significant Opportunity
At the center of Google’s business model is their AdWords services, which on average generates 30% of their revenue in any given financial quarter. This is a service that allows anyone with a credit card to create text-based advertisements that appear along the right side of the Google search results screen. Google’s dominance of online advertising in the U.S. is clear, yet globally the company struggles to make these services and others like it relevant. There are ethnic, cultural, religious and nationalistic barriers to entry in many other nations of the world that Google can only overcome by hiring the best possible candidates from. It can be ascertained from evaluating the history of Google acquisitions globally and their hiring practices throughout the highest growth geo-economic sector of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India & China) nations that the company has a deep appreciation for these cultural variations, and seeks to leverage them for their success. In many respects Google’s global expansion from a leadership perspective parallels the Cultural Dimensions Model as defined by Dr. Geert Hofstede who continues to study today how power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism, and masculinity vs. femininity impact global management (Hofstede, 1983). As a result of their sensitivity to these cultural variations and uniqueness of varying global regions, Google does not chase the lowest cost per programming hour, yet instead thinks strategically how global expansion can compliment their strategic vision. This is exemplified in their approaches to managing Indian development centers, including using coding competitions called Code Jams to recruit the best talent from the Asian region (Puliyenthuruthel, 2005). This infusion of talent, with creativity based on widely varying cultural backgrounds, is contributing to the new product development pipeline at Google because the company concentrates on the collaborative approach to innovation discussed by Bennis (1999) and Maccoby (2007), and also continues to focus on leadership through exceptional programming and logic-based skill sets over seniority. The growth of Google as a computing platform can be directly attributed to this multinational-based approach to enabling innovation globally (Gawer, Cusumano, 2008).
Recommendations for Creating a Healthy Organizational Culture
For Google, their greatest challenges lie ahead, in addressing the enterprise market for their solutions, while at the same time being the search engine of choice for hundreds of millions of people globally. This dichotomy between the need for a more rigid and hierarchical structure to address the unmet needs of the world’s larger corporations who seek to standardize on Google technology and hosted applications is contrasted to the wide-open, creative organizational culture of today that thrives on the rule of 20% generating new product ideas that serve literally millions daily (Anders, 2007). Navigating between these extremes will require the company to consider the following two recommendations.
First, as the company is known for having a highly analytical culture where development is quantified at each stage and even the projects generated during the 20% time of employees is measured, Google needs to take the enterprise-level (or large corporation) needs list and prioritize it, and then put incentives on the top fifty of these unmet needs. The pay-off for solving these top fifty problems is the potential to completely run a separate division of Google solely focused on the enterprise marketplace. The intent of this division is to concentrate on creating entirely new products in response to these unmet needs, with the incentive being what many engineers and technical professionals value most, which is autonomy and the opportunity to spend even more than 20% of their time on their projects of interest. The level of competition this would nurture exceptional levels of creativity and would through the selection process find the most qualified staff members to run the new division. The key aspect of this recommendation is that it sets the foundation for highly effective leadership both from a collaborative standpoint as defined by Bennis (1999) and it also will quickly define those members of the development teams who have the technical competence to earn trust and credibility (Humphreys, Pryor, Haden, Oyler, 2009). As the enterprise market is one that has not nearly been addressed well enough by Google, this strategy is critical both from a strategic as well as a management standpoint.
The second recommendation is to consider the practices Sony and other Japanese manufacturers rely on for their rapid pace of innovation and new product development, and that is to have the engineer who created the new product or service “own” it through the entire validation process. Typically in Google today a new product concept is eventually forwarded to Marissa Myer, Vice President of Product Development (Hof, 2008) for review and eventual presentation to the senior management team. In Sony’s culture a more egalitarian approach was envisioned by the company’s founder since the outset, and it has proven to be successful in finding those product champions who will work the hardest to make a new product a success. This approach would also have within it the opportunity for recognition and one of the most valued aspects of the Google culture, autonomy and freedom to pursue ones’ passion. Organizationally this would also allow for even greater levels of cross-collaboration and team orientation as those with ideas that got past the screening process could potentially lead to entirely new project teams. For Google to succeed over the long-term it must continually grow those innovators they have hired, giving them the chance to experience the autonomy and freedom of attaining their visions of new products over the long-term.
Google is an anomaly of American corporations given its rapid, explosive growth and the ability of its culture to nurture and promote innovation using The Rule of 20%. The management and leadership challenges in such a rapidly growing organization have been discussed in this analysis, with an orientation into what differentiates their unique leadership approaches. The global reach of Google is far beyond being for the lowest cost per programming hour, with a strong concentration on having future products reflect cultural, regional and religious variations between nations. This practices makes the company pay attention with great levels of focus on how regional variations can contribute to their strategic performance. Comparability speaking Google appears to have an appreciation of the tenets of the Cultural Dimensions Model (Hofstede, 1983) and its implications on global growth. The most challenging aspect of the company’s future however is in the area of transitioning to sell more into corporations and enterprises when its development teams and approaches are more oriented towards applications and services that can be readily used by millions of people globally ever day.
George Anders. (2007, August 15). Business: Why Google Inspires Diverging Case Studies. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. A.2.
Warren Bennis. (1999). The end of leadership: Exemplary leadership is impossible without full inclusion, initiatives, and cooperation of followers. Organizational Dynamics, 28(1), 71-80.
Annabelle Gawer, Michael A Cusumano. (2008). How Companies Become Platform Leaders. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), 28-35.
Robert D. Hof. (2008, May). HOW GOOGLE FUELS ITS IDEA FACTORY: CEO Eric Schmidt describes the simple principles driving the company’s steady stream of innovations. Business Week,(4083), 54-58.
Hofstede, Geert. (1983). National Cultures in Four Dimensions: A Research-Based Theory of Cultural Differences Among Nations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13(1,2), 46.
John H. Humphreys, Mildred Golden Pryor, Stephanie Pane Haden, Jennifer D. Oyler. (2009). The Leadership of Joseph R. Walker: Towards a Model of Socialized Charisma through Expert Power. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 14(1), 59-81.
Adam Lashinsky. (2008, February). Back2Back Champs. Fortune, 157(2), 70. ).
Michael Maccoby. (2007). DEVELOPING RESEARCH/TECHNOLOGY LEADERS. Research Technology Management, 50(2), 65-67.
Michael Maccoby. (2009). NEEDED: MANAGERS WHO ARE LEADERS. Research Technology Management, 52(2), 58-60.
Josey Puliyenthuruthel in Bangalore. (2005, April). How Google Searches — For Talent. Business Week,(3928), 52.
Debra Shipman. (2006). Can we learn a few things from Google? Nursing Management, 37(8), 10-12.
Chris Taylor. (2009, May). Democracy Works. FSB: Fortune Small Business: SPECIAL REPORT: Tech Now, 19(4), 40.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.