Nursing Model/Theory Application
A nurse’s role, according to Virginia Henderson’s Nursing Theory, which she wrote prior to the development of theoretical nursing, is to help a person, whether he/she is sick or well, to complete activities, contributing to his/her recovery process (or peaceful death). As the quote introducing this paper notes, the activities a nurse helps an individual perform include those he/she would complete if he/she possessed the required will, strength, or knowledge – in a way to help him/her gain or regain his/her independence. (Resuggan, 2008) Prior to Henderson (1966), Florence Nightingale (1856/1969) stressed the value of self-care in nursing. (Singleton, 2000, Â¶s 5-7) Complementing Henderson’s and Nightingale’s work, more than three decades ago, Orem’s self-care deficit theory (Orem 1971, 1980, 1985, 1991, 1995; cited by Singleton, 2000, Â¶s 5-7) evolved as the prominent model in the self-care area, focusing on an individual’s physical nature identifying deficits within the physical realm. In addition, according to self-care deficit theory denotes “the nurse will diagnose clients” self-care deficits and prescribe how those deficits will be met.” (Singleton, 2000, Â¶s 5-7) in determining how deficits will be met, Henderson stressed the value of helping a person become as independent as possible. Her “theory” contends that nursing includes helping individuals gain independence in relation to performing activities which contribute to their health or the recovery of health. “She described the nurse’s role as substitutive (doing for the person), supplementary (helping the person), or complementary (working with the person), with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible.” (Henderson, 1966, p. 15; cited by Virginia Henderson, 2000-2007) the following 14 components, based on human needs, according to Henderson, characterize nursing activities.
Eat and drink adequately.
Eliminate body wastes.
Move and maintain desirable postures.
Sleep and rest.
Select suitable clothes-dress and undress.
Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment
Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument
Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
Worship according to one’s faith.
Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.
Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities. (“Virginia Henderson’s Need…,” 2004-2008)
The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.
And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.”
Virginia Avernal Henderson (1897-1996) (Henderson, 1966, p. 15; cited by Resuggan, 2008)
Aroskar (1980, p. 658; cited by Trail Ross, 1993, p. 235) explains that a dilemma consists of a choice between equally unsatisfactory alternatives or a challenging problem with no apparent satisfactory solution. As nurses regularly face ethical dilemmas that occur in clinical practice, they often must make difficult choices. Having ethical principles as tools to utilize to reflect on and analyze the issues, Trail Ross (1993, p. 233) purports, however, may help abate the task and decrease anxiety regarding whether he/she made the correct decision. The American Nurses’ Association (ANA) Committee on Ethics (1986) reports that a person finds the delineation between benefiting one person as a moral duty vs. A moral option whenever the four following fundamental criteria exist:
the patient is at significant risk of harm, loss, or damage if the nurse does not assist;
the nurse’s intervention or care is directly relevant to preventing harm;
the nurse’s care will probably prevent harm, loss, or damage to the patient; and/or the benefit the patient will gain outweighs any harm the nurse might incur and does not present more than minimal risk to the health care provider. (Trail Ross, 1993, p. 236)
The theory of obligation utilizes two philosophies: “the principle of beneficence and the principle of justice,” according to Frankena (1973; cited by Trail Ross, 1993, p. 235). Frankena contends a nurse ought to help a person because he/she possesses a moral obligation to assist them. The beneficence principle includes four “oughts”:
to prevent harm, not to inflict evil or harm, to remove evil, and to do and promote good (Frankena, 1973 cited by Trail Ross, 1993, p. 235)
Keri’s case study depicts the dilemma this researcher examines to ascertain how Henderson would have cared for her.
Keri, an active, bright, and attractive 13-year-old female, presents at the outpatient clinic for a sports physical as mandated to qualify to play on her school’s championship basketball team. While performing the initial assessment of Keri, the clinic liaison notes numerous indications of possible physical abuse, which include:
bruises on Keri’s back and upper legs, and laceration in her earlobe, from an earring being ripped out.
The nurse asks Keri, “Is someone hurting you?.”
After a long pause, during which she starts to cry, Keri relates an incident that occurred two nights before. Her biological father, Keri reports, who has a short temper, slapped her in the face, accidentally ripping out the earring, when she came home from a party two hours late. He also spanked her with a leather strap. Following additional prompting by the nurse, Keri admits that her parents divorced five years earlier and that until recently; she had been living with her mother and her mother’s live-in boyfriend in a nearby town. Her mother’s boyfriend, however, Keri states, had been sexually abusing her while her mother worked. Keri states that her mother’s boyfriend warned her not to tell anyone or he would kill her. As Keri sincerely believes her mother’s boyfriend is capable of carrying out his threat, she chose to move in with her biological dad.
Please don’t tell anyone,” Keri begs the nurse. Keri feels it is much better for her to remain with her biological father, even though he does have a bad temper. Keri fears that if JC the nurse reports the incidents, she will either, be forced to return to her mother and the mother’s sexually abusive boyfriend, of whom she is terrified.
The nurse, albeit, knows that the state law, as well as several federal statutes, requires that suspected abuse be reported immediately.
Communicate With Others
The tenth component, noted in Henderson’s list of 14 nursing activities, “Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions,” (“Virginia Henderson’s Need…,” 2008) depicts the focus, this writer contends, Henderson would utilize. During the process of communicating with Keri, to help her express her emotions, needs, fears and opinions, along with determining how to best communicate with child protective services and Keri’s mother, the nurse deals with ethical principles, which include confidentiality, along with the duty to report suspected child abuse. In weighing the obligations of confidentiality in regard to reporting suspected abuse, after addressing a patient’s immediate medical needs, the nurse, per legal stipulations in most states, must report the abuse. In fact, a majority of state child protection statutes specifically identify nurses as mandatory reporters. “The nurse’s statutory duty to report child abuse,” however, “conflicts with the duty to keep patient information confidential.” (Kearney, 2007) to resolve this dilemma and ensure child abuse is addressed, state legislatures statutorily rule the nurse’s duty to report child abuse must trump his/her duty of confidentiality. In Keri’s case, this writer contends, the obligation to confidentiality does not supersede the obligation to report the abuse to appropriate officials. Reporting the abuse, the action this writer would take, helps free Keri from her emotional prison, and likely helps Keri become stronger in her self-care ability and gain a semblance of independence she needs to develop.
III. ANALYSIS & CONCLUSION
She [Virginia Henderson] was one of the first nurses to point out nursing does not consist of merely following physician’s orders.”
Virginia Henderson’s Need…,” 2008)
More than Merely Following Physician’s Orders
Henderson’s principles basically depict the theory behind helping people take care of themselves. Even though Henderson did not appear to intend to develop a major nursing theory, her “theory” reflects the primary theory behind helping people take care of themselves. This writer concludes that Henderson’s uncomplicated and self-explanatory “emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the person and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs.”
Consequently, concepts Henderson (1966) proposed have been utilized in nursing education from the 1930s until the present. (O’Malley, 1996; cited by “Virginia Henderson’s Need…,” 2008) in addition to following physician’s orders, Henderson’s “theory” stresses in this paper, a nurse’s role includes helping a person become as independent as possible as soon as possible.
Henderson’s contributions to nursing literature, which expand from the 1930s through the 1990s, significantly impacted nursing research, strengthening and enhancing he focus on nursing practice and confirming the value of tested interventions in helping individuals regain their health. “From an historical standpoint, her concept of nursing enhanced nursing science this has been particularly important in the area of nursing education.” (“Virginia Henderson’s Need…,” 2008) Principles of Henderson’s theory, published in numerous primary nursing textbooks utilized from the 1930s through the 1960s, along with principles embodied by the 14 activities continue to prove vital in evaluating nursing care in thee21st century, not only in cases such as Keri’s, but in a myriad of others benefiting from nursing.
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse’s Duty to Report Child Abuse vs. The Attorney’s Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney’s Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366.
Resuggan, Ray RN;RPN;MRN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). “Virginia Avernal Henderson.” Nurses.info. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. “Nurses’ perspectives of encouraging clients’ care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within a long-term care facility,” Rehabilitation Nursing, January 1, 2000. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P348282208.html.
Trail Ross, Mary Ellen. (1993). “Linking Ethical Principles With Community Practice.” Journal of Community Health Nursing, Vol. 10. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://www.questia.com/read/95780716?title=Linking%20Ethical%20Principles%20W%20Community%20Practice.
Virginia Henderson. (2000-2007), NurseScribe. Retrieved September 25, 2007,from http://www.enursescribe.com/Henderson.htm.
Virginia Henderson’s Need Theory.” (2004-2008). Nursing Theories. Current Nursing. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Henderson.htm.
Virginia Avernal Henderson
Resuggan, Ray RN;RPN;MRN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). “Virginia Avernal Henderson.” Nurses.info. http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Virginia Avernal Henderson (1897-1996)
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.