Heinrich events are one of the most discussed and debated phenomena related to global climate change. For each theory proposed related to the cause or effect of a Heinrich event, there is a theory contrary to the concept. Theories relating to the binging and purging of ice sheets, cyclic changes in atmospheric conditions, and the thermohaline circulation disruption of the North Atlantic Ocean all play a part in the discussion of Heinrich events. While the debate of the causes of Heinrich events is still ongoing, the effects of the events are well documented, and are clearly substantial in relation to changes in the global climate.
This paper discusses the history of Heinrich events, and will discuss current theories of their origin. Additionally, this paper will outline the scientific method for discovering more information of Heinrich events, and their relationship to the Bond Cycle, Milankovitch Cycles, and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations. Finally, this paper will discuss possible effects on global climate as the result of Heinrich events, using the Younger Dryas as the basis for discussion.
Heinrich events were first discovered by Hartmut Heinrich of the German Hydrographic Institute of Hamburg, Germany in 1988. Heinrich extracted samples from northeastern Atlantic sediment cores, and analyzed the samples. He discovered that the number of lithic, or rock sediment, and planktonic foraminifera (zooplankton) shell formations fluctuated greatly in many of the core samples. Additionally, Heinrich noted that the components of the sediments seemed not to fluctuate gradually, but seemingly abruptly (Hackett, 1994).
In short, Heinrich found that, within the core samples, the planktonic foraminifera were dominant for long stretches of time. However, he noted that six separate layers of the sample distinctly showed the presence of lithic sediments, and nearly no foraminifera shell formations. Furthermore, the lithic sediment was made up of small pebbles and debris (Hackett, 1994). This type of sediment was not seen in other periods within the core.
These types of sediment deposits have been shown to be the result of rapidly changing ice sheets, and are known as Heinrich layers. As ice sheets and bergs move across the bedrock substrate during extreme cold periods, and as changes in the temperature of the ice sheet occurs, the sediment within the substrate becomes entrained to the basal layer of the ice sheet. These sediments, as a result of the ice sheet movement, are transported by the ice stream to the surface of the ice margin (Broecker, 2003). As portions of the ice sheet break off, the sediment is carried further into the ocean, either through the melting of the newly formed iceberg, or the simple movement of the current.
Additionally, meltwater at the base of the ice sheet rises at the ice margin. This meltwater contains high concentration of sediment. As the meltwater mixes with ocean water, and is absorbed by the ocean tide, this sediment is further carried into the ocean. The result is sediment high in lithic content and ice rafted detritus (Hesse, 2004).
The Heinrich layers were determined to be these types of ice rafted detritus (IRD). Bond and his colleagues (1992) examined the IRD sediment, and discovered sand grains, pebbles, and even stones, carried onto the shelf margin by ice bergs. Within the IRD, Bond (et al.) discovered high concentrations of light-colored detrital carbonate, which is usually consequential from continental weathering of carbonate rock (Bond, et al., 1992). In other words, the sediment found in the Heinrich layers originated within continental land, showing that the sediment had to have been deposited by ice sheet breakage. These breakages are known as Heinrich events.
Bond and his colleagues determined that the sediment found in the Heinrich layers of the core samples originated from limestone and dolomite, or calcium-magnesium carbonate, found in eastern Canada and northwestern Greenland. This, coupled with the map of sources used by Bond (et al.) suggested the cause of the Heinrich event responsible for the deposits was the Laurentide Ice Sheet, or North American Ice Sheet, and the Hudson Strait ice stream (1992).
To understand the causes of Heinrich events, it is imperative to first understand the conditions surrounding the events. One of the best records of a Heinrich event can be found during the last ice age, approximately 11,500 years ago. Researchers know that, at the time, the Laurentide Ice Sheet and many others like it covered North America, and have since retreated to areas including Greenland (Grousset, et al., 2000). By analyzing the ice sheets, it is possible to confirm atmospheric conditions involved in the creation of the layered sheets.
Water molecules within the ice of Greenland contain a chemical history of temperature at which the ice was created. Core samples taken from Greenland show that, over the last 10,000 years, known as “currently” to most environmental scientists, the climate in Greenland has been a stable warm period within a much colder period of 100,000 years. During this 100,000-year period, the temperatures in Greenland have been between 15 to 40 degrees Celsius cooler than current climate conditions. These cooler periods were unstable, in that in as little as a decade, the climate has altered between cold and relatively warm (Clark, et al., 1995). One such period, that of the Younger Dryas, shows such a switch to extremely cold climate conditions, and a just as abrupt switch to the current climate conditions.
These periods of slow cooling followed by abrupt warming are known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events. While these events do create a warming trend, this trend is not enough to return the climate to its previous temperatures. Thus, the next cooling cycle is even colder than the first. Following a number of these cycles, there is a terminal dramatic cooling, followed by a massive warming. This termination stage is known as the Bond Cycle.
Samples taken from Vostok, Antarctica, further clarify this wavering climate. In both samples, the climate appears to be warm for approximately 10,000 years, but is followed by drastic, erratic cooling period, lasting approximately 90,000 years. Additionally, there appears to be smaller variations occurring at 41,000 years and 20,000 years (Jouzel, 1999). Carbon dioxide bubbles trapped within the ice samples at both locations show similar time patterns.
A decade earlier, Milutin Milankovitch, a Serbian astronomer, had discovered changes in the amount of sunlight received by the earth, and these variations appeared to coincide with the temperature data from the core samples. Milankovitch had determined that the changes in sunlight were due to small changes in the orbit of the Earth. These changes altered the amounts of insolation received by the Northern hemisphere, and occurred in cycles of 100,000 years, 41,000 years and a 19,000 — 23,000-year cycle (Hays, 1976). Hayes and his colleagues discovered that the Milankovitch cycles, or the changes from eccentric, obliquity, and precession orbital paths, corresponded to the major variations in temperature recorded in core samples (1976).
These orbital variations alter the amount of radiation which reaches the earth’s surface. However, in order for the climate to be cooled dramatically, there must be some form of reflection of incoming radiation. This reflective surface, in the case of global climate, is ice. As small orbital variations cool the northern hemisphere, ice sheet formulation is initiated. This occurs during the 100,000 eccentric orbit. As an ice sheet continues to grow over the 100,000-year orbit cycle, it progressively cools the atmosphere of the northern hemisphere, which creates a faster growth rate (Bergeron, 1997).
So, in looking again at the Greenland core samples, researchers can begin to see a full picture. The Laurentide Ice Sheet and other ice sheets in North America probably came about as a result of the shifting orbit cycle of the Earth. The continued presence and growth of ice contributed to a further cooling of the climate, allowing for an even faster rate of ice formation. Since the Greenland and Heinrich Layer sediments found clearly showed sediment much like that found in the Hudson Bay area, there is a high likelihood that massive numbers of ice bergs broke from the ice sheets and entered the ocean, bringing with them large amounts of freshwater and debris, otherwise known as an episode of a Heinrich event (Bond, et al., 1992).
How these Heinrich events occur has been debated by the scientific community. One theory, proposed by MacAyeal (1993), is that of the binge-purge model. According to MacAyeal, as ice sheets begin to thicken, the insulation properties of the ice begin to allow the heating of the base. This heating is caused from the geothermal heat of the Earth itself. Once the ice sheet is thick enough, the base begins to melt, and the ice sheet slips along the bed, and eventually surges out into the ocean. This surge creates armadas of icebergs, which contain sediment such as those found in the ice cores of Greenland (MacAyeal, 1993).
Another theory of the cause of Heinrich events is the release of freshwater from within a jokulhlaup (glacier) or large lake. The result is a massive release of freshwater in a matter of minutes, or sometimes weeks, which flows to the ocean as a flood. This release can be caused from melting, water pressure within the jokulhlaup, or in some cases, simple floodwaters (Sturm and Benson, 1985).
Still another theory, postulated by some of the members of MacAyeal’s original team, alters the binge-purge model to include not ice sheets, but ice shelf collapses. According to Hulbe (et al., 2004), the original binge-purge model would not account for the widespread cooling event seen immediately after a Heinrich event. These cool conditions were seen throughout the North Atlantic, and thus, according to Hulbe (et al., 2004), could not have been caused solely by the purging to the Laurentide Ice sheet. Additionally, Hulbe and his colleagues note that thermal processes typical in ice streams tend to slow the motion of that ice stream. This, as a result, would actually prevent the massive iceberg output needed to support the release postulated in a Heinrich event (Hulbe, et al., 2004).
Hulbe (et al., 2004) proposed a theory, based on data retrieved from recent events along the Antarctic Peninsula. The researchers noted that, in this case, the ice shelves were not simply breaking off due to purging, but were instead disintegrating due to climate controlled meltwater filling surface crevices. This disintegration of the ice shelf, due to climate and not internal release mechanisms, would then be the cause of the massive discharge of icebergs seen in a Heinrich event (Hulbe, et al., 2004).
Although the cause of a Heinrich event is still theoretical in nature, the effects of the events are well documents. To understand how Heinrich events affect the global climate, it is imperative to first discuss the Earth cycles in general. First, researchers note that the climate of Europe is not like other countries along the same latitudes, such as North America or Asia. In order for Europe to be as significantly warmer as it is, the cold, dry winds traveling eastward from Canada must be considerably warmer than those in other areas at the same latitude (Calvin, 1998).
As the Gulf Stream merges into the North Atlantic Ocean, it is met by warm water flowing north from the tropical equator. This water flows northward, up the coast of Norway. Additionally, there is a branch of this water that stems westward to Greenland. The effect of this flow is that Europe remains, on average, nine to 10 degrees warmer during the winter seasons than other areas in the same latitude (Calvin, 1998).
However, researchers have noted that when this cycle fails, it is not only Europe that is affected by the change. At the same time, other areas of the world experience a cooling cycle, as well. Tropical swamps have been seen to reduce methane production, and the Gobi desert experiences high winds. These types of changes worldwide show that there is a force switching the climate on a global scale (Calvin, 1998).
According to most scientists, this large force is the North Atlantic Ocean current. The flow of this current is relative to the flow of almost a hundred Amazon Rivers. When this current alters course dramatically, the course of the atmosphere can equally change. This current is a part of a cycle of the Atlantic Ocean that extends through the southern oceans and into the Pacific Ocean (Calvin, 1998).
This north-south ocean current helps to maintain global temperatures by redistributing heat to temperate zones. If this current, assisted by the Gulf winds, reaches too far north, the combined effect is to melt the sea ice. This melting, as mentioned previously, results in less reflective materials responsible for reflecting much of the sunlight received by the northern hemisphere. The result, then, is a state of global warming. This warming allows for ice sheets in other areas to melt, creating a continuous cycle (Calvin, 1998).
It is a well-known fact that surface waters are flushed twice a year in most waters, even those of lakes and streams. The result is that water molecules carrying atmospheric gasses are pulled downward into “sinkholes.” As surface water molecule density changes with temperature, the heavier surface water of a lake will sink into the less dense waters below, since those waters are kept warmer than the surface in colder temperatures. This allows for the mixing of these molecules (Calvin, 1998).
However, ocean waters work slightly differently, since those waters also contain high amounts of salt. This salt also plays a role in the flushing of surface water, in that water evaporation leaves behind it the salt content of the water molecules. This results in a higher, heavier salt content in surface waters of the ocean, which causes those waters to sink. These saltier waters are then carried south by the ocean current (Calvin, 1998).
In compensation, the current waters in the Atlantic create a longer circulation path, which brings warmer water north. In 1961, Henry Stommel began to theorize that massive additions of freshwater to this current cycle would severely disrupt the flow of the currents. It is important to note that ocean currents are not well blended in terms of salt at any given time. For example, water flowing from the Mediterranean is approximately 10% saltier than that of the ocean in general, which causes these waters to sink as they flow into the Atlantic. Salty waterfalls in the north as a result of cold northern winds causing evaporation also lead to higher salt content in the northern waters. These heavy waters then sink during the winter months, and are carried southward by the Atlantic current. This current then travels southward, around the tip of Africa through the Indian Ocean and into the Pacific Ocean. This process allows the Atlantic to dump its excess salt into the much less salty Pacific Ocean. From beginning to end, this process is known as the thermohaline circulation cycle (THC) (Stommel, 1961).
Researchers know the Heinrich events occur during the 100,000-year cooling cycle. Theories postulate that the problem begins with the ice sheet growth due to this cooling period. As the ice sheets grow, the winds blowing over them become considerably cooler. These cooler winds, as noted above, cause higher evaporation of the surface waters, and leave behind waters higher in salt content. This alteration in content slows the movement of the Atlantic current, making the north colder than before (Stommel, 1961).
As the saltier water is finally moved through the ocean current, the current is again “switched on” to its fullest potential. However, the warming trend this induces is not sufficient enough to return the north back to its previous temperatures. As precipitation from the increased evaporation occurs, more ice accumulates. With each warming trend, more freshwater is added to the Atlantic, slowing the currents even further. Thus, the cycle begins again (Calvin, 1998).
Once the ice mass reaches its thresh-hold and purges, or once the base becomes melted enough, the ice mass breaks. The result is a massive amount of freshwater ice in the northern Atlantic. This large amount of freshwater completely shuts down the conveyer belt, or Atlantic current. Without the influx of warmer, southern water, the northern hemisphere rapidly drops in temperature (Calvin, 1998).
As a result, researchers theorize that the increased amounts of sea and ice, created as the ice sheets continue to spread, and the meltwater pools over land mass, may be partially responsible for the general cooling of the entire earth climate following a Heinrich event (Calvin, 1998). As these areas increase, more sunlight and heat is reflected back into space, causing a general cooling of the atmosphere. This cooler atmosphere would then result in more ice development, continuing the cycle.
Other researchers have proposed that the cause of the global climate change as a result f a Heinrich event may be related to the relationship between greenhouse gasses and the Atlantic salt conveyer. Walter Broecker, a geochemist, theorized that major greenhouse gasses were disturbed by the failure of the conveyer. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of heat retained by the Earth. As the ocean currents rearranged to accommodate for a lack of flushing, less evaporation would occur in the tropics. This would make the air dryer, and since water molecules are the most powerful greenhouse gas, this decrease in evaporation would reduce global humidity, and thus, would reduce the greenhouse gasses. According to Broecker, a small scale adjustment of just 30% less evaporation would plunge the planet’s temperature by as much as nine degrees Fahrenheit (Broecker, 1997).
In a report to the Pentagon by researchers Schwartz and Randall, further speculations on global climate changes resulting from a Heinrich event are outlined, in terms of possible consequences for today’s world. According to the researchers, average temperatures in the north could drop as much as six degrees Fahrenheit. As a result, evaporation loss would cause a drought for more than a decade over some of the more critical agricultural regions. Additionally, storms would intensify, increasing wind speeds and further amplifying the effects of the drought damages (Schwartz and Randall, 2003).
The result on world populations and the Earth in general are not difficult to imagine. A decrease in agriculture would mean food shortages for most of the world’s populations. The change in precipitation patters would result in massive flooding and drought, which would lead to a shortage of fresh water. Increase violent storm activity would lead to a shortage of access to energy supplies. The result, according to Schwartz and Randall, could be a dramatic change in the organization of global economies. Those with resources could preserve resources for their own use, while those countries unable to do so would perish (Schwartz and Randall, 2003).
Additionally, such shortages could easily lead to war. Nations with higher capabilities militarily could overthrow smaller, less able nations in order to preserve their food and energy supplies. The combination of war, famine, drought, and dehydration would easily cause a population crash over the course of centuries. While the event would not likely cause the entire extinction of the human race, since science and technology could be produced to preserve at least some areas, the world as it is now would be drastically altered (Schwartz and Randall, 2003).
It is obvious that the resulting global climate change resulting from a Heinrich event would be disastrous for the human population. Perhaps less dramatic, but more concerning, is the result of Heinrich events on the plant and animal population of the Earth. With decreased sea levels and altering sea temperatures, the plant and animal life within the oceans would diminish greatly. Resulting flooding and fire from massive storms and extreme drought in other areas due to lack of evaporations would likely also kill many animals and plant life across the globe. The result would be less forest and grassland, producing less oxygen and resulting in less intake of carbon dioxide, further changing the greenhouse gases of the atmosphere. This drastic, rapid change in greenhouse gases could cause even further catastrophic results (Schwartz and Randall, 2003).
Heinrich events can cause global climates to change. As a result of massive ice discharge into the Atlantic Ocean, the thermohaline circulation cycle of the oceans is disrupted. Since this cycle is responsible for the maintenance of global temperatures, such a stoppage can result in worldwide global cooling. The impact of such and event on the human, animal, and vegetation populations of the world is unthinkable.
Further research into the causes of Heinrich events will likely alter our world. If proof can be found, for example, that global warming can induce a Heinrich event, steps must be taken to avoid disruption of the greenhouse gasses. Additionally, if the cause is found to be the cooling cycle of the Earth, slight warming in certain areas may prevent the ice sheets from reaching critical mass. It is only by researching the Heinrich events in the past that we will be able to prevent the possible catastrophic results of another event in the future.
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