Germany Research Project
Germany is a prominent country in Europe as it stands as the second most crowded nation and the biggest economy in Europe. Seeing how it has the largest economy, it does alter the links between the prominent nations in the world. German history is filled with social and political movements. Adolf Hitler and the era of Nazism is an unfortunate and prominent part of the History of the nation. It was after both the world wars that Germany was destabilized and broken into two pieces. Following the Second World War, in 1945 the country was taken hold by the Allied powers which included United Kingdom, America, France and the Soviet Union. (CIA)
After the invasion, Germany was torn into two nations with the Berlin wall in between. In 1949, just near the beginning of the cold war, two states were created. One was the Western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the other one was Eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The two states were basically created on the differences of the governing system. It was in those days that the spread of democracy and communism was making its move. The two major players in the Cold war were America and the Soviet Union. Thus one of the Germany, the democratic FRG was linked to the West and was pro-America. It eventually went on to become part of the EC which was then the European Union and NATO. (CIA)
The GDR however stayed on the communist side and was a prominent member in the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. Just as the strength of communism began to drop and the U.S.S.R. starting getting weak, Germany was moving toward unification. Thus, as soon as the cold war ended, Germany was unified in the 1990. At Present, Germany’s current name is the Federal Republic of Germany and its capital is Berlin. (CIA).
Germany as a nation has gone through different rules and thus has been shifted from a democratic and a dependant state. After the World War 2, Germany was occupied in four different zones by the countries mentioned before. All the powers lifted their rights from the nation on March 15, 1991. (CIA)
There have been political alterations in the Germany keeping the Second World War in time. The political unrest had begun following the First World War. The German population and the government were not in favor of the Treaty of Versailles. Many even opposed Germany’s agreement to it. Following the First World War, unrest began and so did the alterations of government. Thus two political transformations were really prominent. One change was prior to the Second World War in which Adolf Hitler ruled over Germany. His way of keeping the nation and causes chaos all over the world led to the Second World War. Following the second war, Hitler’s regime fell and Germany was divided. With democracy growing in one side of Germany, it wasn’t till long that it would overtake the East as well. Thus, the second political change occurred after world war two and it will be discussed below.
Before Democratization: Nazism at its peak
The unrest in Germany started initially when the mixture of the treaty of Versailles and the Great Depression came forward. The Treaty was something that many Germans did not approve of. A major reason was that Germany wasn’t asked before the Treaty was made. Another reason was that in the treaty Germany was also included to be a cause of causing the First World War. Yet another reason, Germany didn’t approve of Versailles was that Germany lost much of its land and acquisitions. (Grosser, 1964) The German population and many opposition parties in the country wished to overthrow the government. It was in 1919, that the Spartacists started a revolt in Berlin which caused the government to go to Weimer. Consequently, the name of the new government was set to Weimer republic. The 1920s were very severe years for Germany as starvation and poverty had hit its peak. (Grosser, 1964) The political unrest wasn’t getting better by the 1930’s the depression had hit Germany really hard. Amidst these crises, the president of Germany in 1933, President Hindenburg asked Hitler to attain the post of a chancellor and go on for the coalition government. Over the turn of events, Hitler gained more and more control and finally became the Furher (leader) when the president passed away. As Hitler passed away he made sure that all the actions he did pave way for an even stronger dictatorship.
Hitler was determined to go after Jews and commit their mass murder. It should be noted that the Holocaust or genocide of Jews didn’t reach its peak until 1941. Due to Hitler winning battles after battles, more and more Jews came under his control. The invasion of Poland marked the start of the Second World War. There were two million Jews in Poland alone. (Farmer, 2007) Until earlier, the only thing Hitler started against Jews was their deportation. None of the public appearances or speeches that Hitler made that time hinted his cruel intentions for Jews. However, little by little Hitler’s hatred against Jews started coming out.
Operation Barbarossa which was launched by Hitler against Russia came into action in 1941. The peak of the Holocaust and this operation were side by side. Hitler was anti-Jewish from the start but he went to make an anti-Semitic society. It could be argued that how exactly a vicious dictator came to be so popular and controlling in the country. The reason was that almost every person in German regardless of which class, age or gender they were, they agreed with his anti-Semitic theories to some extent. (Farmer, 2007) This can be showed by the fact that most of the people who actually voted for Hitler were the ones who wanted to get rid of Jews. The euthanasia programmed was the first mass killing of Jews that was commanded by Hitler. (Farmer, 2007) Hitler’s major goal thus was the extermination of Jews from Germany and its linking countries. By 1940s, most of the Jews of Germany had emigrated out. (Farmer, 2007) The way Jews were treated in Hitler’s era was horrible and unthinkable. Prisoners which include women, children, men, elderly and sick, were carried in boxed cars. The people were kept naked and forced into one boxcar. (Aroneanu, 1996) The boxcars that were there were meant to be for forty people but it held one forty people. There was a pot which eventually overflowed and people excreted directly on the floor leading to even more malicious conditions. As they reached the camps, the people even babies were branded with a hot iron or they were tattooed. Everyone including the women was shaven and they were all forced in a shower room with phenol solution. This lead to death or neurological injury for many of the weak and sick in the camps (Aroneanu, 1996) It was crimes like these and many more which lead to even more and more torture of the Jews.
Post World War II: Democratization in West Germany
Following the Second World War, West Germany was occupied under the Allied forces. Surely, when all the countries were democratic, democracy was thought to be implemented into the occupied Germany as well. However, the Germans had just gone under a regime under Adolf Hitler. The way Hitler organized the country did oppress the Jews, homosexuals and many other races. Nonetheless, for those who benefitted under his regime were likely to oppose the Western change. The politics in Germany basically came into action on the basis of those people who wanted to let go the Nazi past. (Pritchard, 1996) Those who were against Nazism believed that it only came into being due to the political unrest that prevailed in Germany following World War 1. The monopoly capitalist, and the German officer corps aided the Nazis in to power. As it was mentioned, that Nazism was rooted deep in the society and ‘Denazification’ was mandatory all around. That came there because even the need for reform was called on by the Christians and socialist, this group made a small bulk of the entire German population.
A Majority of the Germans had gone through twelve years of war and Nazism. They were deeply ingrained and affected by Nazi policies and cultures and thus they couldn’t be just omitted in the matter of days. (Pritchard, 1996) Most of the Germans were tired and wanted to rebuild their lives and society back to the normal Germany. They wished for Germany to go back how it was and did not want to try out political changes like democracy. (Pritchard, 1996) It wasn’t until four years later that the military rule allowed for proper democracy to set in West Germany. (Jarausch, 2006) Another cultural change that was necessary was the demilitarization subsequent to the Nazi regime. The Nazi regime in general was the one who created a lot of show for the people of Germany. It made the citizens think that the military was so strong and aggressive only because the other countries were attacking Germany. The government even forced the youth to be a part of the army which led to Germany’s s army a big and prominent one in the war. (Jarausch, 2006) Since this was the case, the entire population of Germany became highly aggressive. This aforementioned population did not include the anti-Nazis but as mentioned earlier there weren’t a lot of those any way. The Nazi supporting population had been so brainwashed by the previous regime that they had completed been washed away of all their tolerance. Even though the Jews were victims the most, other races and minority groups were under threat as well. The Nazi supporting Germans did not like the idea of Jews or any other culture or race living in the country. (Jarausch, 2006) Another reform that was necessary was the people’s love and admiration for the economic system implemented by the Nazi regime. Germany had gone to progress under their policies. This led to the Germans believing that any move towards democracy or the free market system would dismantle their progress and end the country in doom. With such mindsets in the society, establishing a political change in the country would have surely been hard.
Subsequent to the war, it was the right time to make radical change in Germany. That was there sine in 1945; there was no police, army, civil service or judiciary there. That was a good thing since any change that would be imposed wouldn’t be met with resistance. Thus, the condition in Germany was stable and looming for a change in the political systems. When talking about West Germany, the Christians and the socialists were the active forces to make reforms in Germany. Regardless of what they wanted, their actions were kept in control and in check by the forces that were controlling Germany at that time. Thus it stated that the French, American and British authorities did not want to see any change in the early years. (Pritchard, 1996) That can be understood since it wasn’t sure that whatever change that was coming in the way would be anti-or pro-West. Thus, there were limitations places on the actions of the anti-Nazi organizations. The Western forces made sure to not give political rights to any of the people who showed feelings that were pro-Communist or in favor of the Soviet Union. Severe limitations were seen on the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party. The legislation altered by the novel German provincial institutions was vetoes and the State was built by scratch with contribution from the Allied forces.
Following the conquer of West Germany, the Allied forces put it right in front of the Germans that the decision they are going to take will be from German considerations and will be free of any foreign influences. (Simons, 1951) This was done so the same events that occurred after the treaty of Versailles would not take place in Germany. The leaders of the allied forces worked together to make a constitutional reform in Western Germany. Surely, it was clear the Germans would not get a say in making their own constitution. That was again due to the mistrust that was still present among the German population. (Hahn, 1995) Even though it was said that the Western were acting in favor of Germany but surely they were taking their own benefits from it as well. They acted in such a way to make West Germany strong enough to fight away Communism. They wanted the Marshall plan to prosper and they also wished for Germany to be a prominent player in the United Western Europe. Even though it was the West deciding the new regime change for Germany, most of the Germans got their say in the changes. (Hahn, 1995) Over all the process that took place for making the constitution, the basic law was always kept it time. It is true that the Western leaders made the constitution themselves; the ratification was only done subsequent to the approval of the entire population. (Hahn, 1995)
The democratic changes begin right away as the leaders sought it necessary to deice the government in local, regional and state administrations. These administrations would be chosen via elections only to make basis for a democratic change in Western Germany in the future. This central government or administration per say would not have controlled all aspects of the country. They were assigned specific areas such as transport, communication, industry and foreign trade. Even though it was a German heading the area but he was under the control of the Allied Control Council. (Hahn, 1995) This was done so that when the Allied powers did decide to leave, they would do so leaving some basis of elected government. Another reason that this preliminary government was set up was so Communist influences wouldn’t take over and drag the country toward a communistic approach. (Hahn, 1995) The Deputy Military Governor in the zone belonging to United States, General Lucius D. Clay believed that the only way Germans will make their way towards democracy is to take the responsibility of electing the government themselves. (Smith, 1974)
Due to this, the process of democracy was fastest in the zone allotted to the United States. Only after a year of acquisition, elections were held that would pick out the convention to make the constitution. Later that year, the state constitution in the American zone was accepted by popular referendum, legislatures were chosen and cabinets were elected as well. Surely, Clay made it sure that the independence the Germans got was under supervision and in restriction as well. Similar democratically elected governments were placed in British and French Zones as well. (Hahn, 1995)
The emerge of communism in the Eastern bloc was somewhat blur yet visible at the same time. Event though the leaders had not taken orthodox Stalin methods into the way government was run, they were somewhat similar. This was exemplified in Germany for instance that it was the elites that got a say in the government and a pivotal role in the decisions. It was actual a cycle of different events that led to the unification of the Germanys and the democratization of the entire regime. It could be a possibility that the way USSR was becoming weak due to the cold war was an important reason. In different countries like east and central Europe, there was collapse occurring in the communist countries. The economies were being damaged and Soviet Union did not remain in the strong fatherly position in which it once was. Emergence of communism in the Eastern bloc was blurring yet visible at the same time. This explains the fact that it wasn’t the opposition movement alone that made the basis of democratization of Germany. The fact that the regime was itself getting weak provided a lot of momentum to the revolution. (Padget, 1999)
This is quite depictive with the NATO meeting that was held in the 1970s. It was noted in the meeting that the Federal Republic of Germany was to be an important player in the peace of both East and West Germany. They highlighted the fact that with motivation, unity would be possible as well. With more discussions being held between both the Germanys, the councils wanted to stabilize the situation, especially in East Germany. (NATO)
What were actually the reasons due to which there was a spread of anti- communist approach in East Germany? Many would think that it would by the negative sentiment put in East Germany against communism. However, anti-communist opposition did not play a major role in the regime change in East Germany. (Padgett, 1999) The opposition came in forward when a lot of the East Germans were seen to cross the border via Hungary to go into West Germany. Many people especially the East government saw this as means of the people forcing and wanting the West Germany to unify with the East. (Padgett, 1999) As mentioned earlier, the elites were the one who were in the main group of giving anti-communistic approach. The mobilization that did occur revealed itself in the form of street demonstrations.
Another cause for the democratization of mobilization of people of GDR was seeing the Federal republic as an independent state. The fact that it made its way into councils such as the NATO and EU left GDR lacking national identification. (Padget, 1999) Thus the mere feeling of not being strong spread through the population which led them to stop believing that their government was a strong one. Had the community regime in GDR maintained their rigid character, then the country would have emerged as a strong as its neighbor. (Padget, 1999) The protestant church gave shelter for the opposition to gather together. Mass movements especially in the streets of Leipzig played an important role in changing the regime. A good thing about the opposition in this case was that it didn’t split based on conflicting demands. Even though by 1989, the strength of the socialist economy had died down by still no sense of certainly was to be found. The people were confident that they wanted a democracy and a free economy, yet they didn’t know the changes that were required in the institutions. (Padget, 1999)
In conclusion, the democratization of GDR did occur completely when it had become unified with the Federal Republic. When the unification did occur, the social foundations were not as strong just as is depictive of other communist countries. However, the institutional apparatus put in the newly added Germany was similar to the one that was present in West Germany. It is clear that the way West had progressed and made better because of democracy and a capitalist system, same alteration were to be made in the newly added Germany.
When the people of East Germany started to realize that they wanted democracy, their slogan became ‘We are the people!’ (Dale, 2010) As it can be seen their attempts were basically them showing that they didn’t want the remaining part of Germany to be under communist control. What they actually wanted was to be let out of the grip of ruthless and selfish rulers. They wanted to elect someone among themselves who will go on to represent them in a fair way and thus establish justice in the country. It is true that with the West Germany entitling itself to positions in NATO and the EU, it was progressing at a much faster rate. Prosperity was quite visible and freedom was as well. The protestors that wanted a regime change asserted the fact that they spoke for the entire nation and that it is the majority which should decide what happens in the state.
It is true that up till the mid 1960s, there still remained a sense of pro-Nazism in the country. Thus, mainly on the basis of the Germans having their root in Nazism and their belief in newer policies, they swung back and forth between the two. The German population in East Germany began becoming more critical of the Holocaust and the whole Nazi era. (Pritchard, 1996)
When the protests started, all the people had a common goal and there was unity against the oppressor. (Dale, 2010) According to Dale, this is depictive of the early stages of any revolution where as the middle and working class begins opposing the current form of government. What ‘the people’ basically wanted was the monopoly that was controlling east of Germany to finish and democracy to prevail. There was another slogan which clearly stated that the GDR belongs to the people and not the SED.
Surely, in East Germany they were varied classes of people but there is always the question that who actually felt the need for democratization. Surely, it is understood that had the people of East Germany hadn’t been impressed by the Westerners; this revolution wouldn’t have gone forward at such an alarming rate. It has been stated that it was mostly the people of high intellect like doctors and priests who led the movement. The class of intellectuals at that time was known as the intelligentsia. (Dale, 2010). Along with the intellectuals, the youth of East Germany also took part. (Dale, 2010) The artists that were a prominent part of the protest drew pictures on posters that showed and further promoted people to push for change. The Western scholars have been known to provoke and cause the Eastern intellectuals to take a step against the tyranny. A major think to take note of in this change for democratization was that it was a mere argument between the two elite and learned classes in East Germany. One pole was the one that wanted to over throw and the other pole was defending the current government. (Fuller, 1999) The learned and scholarly people had their time in East Germany. They were looked upon with respect and were acknowledged for all they contribute to the society. The working class at that time did not grasp important aspects such as freedom and democracy. Therefore, even though the working class was oppressed it didn’t give much concern and find it a need to push for the changing government. (Fuller, 1999)
Was Democracy a good idea?
There have been skeptics to idea of unification at all times. It was criticized that the unification led to the formation of a very large European Union. Another argument of democracy came forward that with the populists forcing democracy, they didn’t support establishment and progress as much as the previous regime did. (Hartleb, 2007) As compared to other democracies in Europe, many say the right wing populism in Germany didn’t as good as the other countries. Some scientists state it could be due to the lack of faith or to the disintegrations of the proper ideals of democracy. (Hartleb, 2007) Another reason could be that they have always worked in a shadowing and controlling environment, thus the leaders and other aspects as media are scared to be totally free like they should be in a democracy. (Hartleb, 2007)
Maybe Germany has attained Democracy that works for it, but is still unified. It is true that Berlin is the capital and is unified in every way but that is not the case with entire Germany. Even 20 years after the collapse of the wall, the people don’t feel as one country. There have been discrepancies in the rapid process of communist disintegration, the politics of owning land and the issues faced during unification. The west has progressed past the East leaving it underdeveloped in many senses. It is because of this fact that many people of the East and moving towards the West. (“For Germany, Unity Proves,” 2009) 65% of the people in the West haven’t been to the East. The minister of Justice in eastern province of Saxony, Geert Mackenroth, stated that many of the Westerners still haven’t accepted that East Germany is a part of Germany. (“For Germany, Unity Proves,” 2009) Even though the unemployment rates in East Germany have improved tremendously since the past two decades, the people till retain an inferiority complex with the West. Where many people feel that unification was a good thing and it led to their betterment, many still believe that in the end it was just the West Germany taking over East Germany. (“For Germany, Unity Proves,” 2009)
The socialists in Germany not only wanted there to be a political change inside Germany, but outside as well. They wish that Germany’s long-term relations with other countries wouldn’t reflect in foreign policies that Hitler maintained. The Nazi government was not in favor of foreign treaties and any treaties appeared as compromise to the population. Most of the people in Germany weren’t in favor the pre-war policies were more of oppression and expansion and not very friendly. This change was reflected in the people of Germany especially the ones who were Anti-Nazi from the beginning. (Pritchard, 1996)
It should be noted that subsequent to Hitler rule, a lot of cultural modifications were made among the people of Germany. A major one was that they had turn anti-West and were afraid if not curious about the political system there. After the first few years after the way, the republic was scared about the new changes and whether they would last or not. (Brady & Wiliarty, 2002) It wasn’t until they saw the thinking and actions of the Germans started resembling those of the West that their fears decreased. In short, Germany has come a long way if its political hosiery is looked at closely. Being a major player in two world wars, undergoing a Holocaust and dictatorship and possible communism, Germany has come a long way. After the war, in the difficult 1970s, the way Germany led through its political and economic regression has been appreciated by many. (Brady & Wiliarty, 2002) In not a long time, Germany came past the problems of citizen oppression and communism and started entering into problems that other Western democratic states are facing. Problems like globalization and culture integration are now major concerns in Germany, a country that was cultured into believing race superiority. (Brady & Wiliarty, 2002) When the 1980s came knocking, the country outperformed its neighbors just as Great Britain or French with not many major alterations to its economic form. (Brady & Wiliarty, 2002)
The economy in the country matches up to be the fifth largest in the entire world. (CIA) For a country that has gone through so much political changes and unrest, this progress is surely amazing. Germany is a prominent exporter of chemicals, machinery and vehicles. The problems that the country faces are similar to its European neighbors. Problems such as challenges for long-term growth, decreasing immigration and decreasing fertility are the current issues. (CIA) Currently Germany is a democracy and had its recent elections in March 2012. The chief of state is President Joazhim Guack and the head of government is Chancellor Angel Merkel. (CIA) The movement in Germany has been in part by the efforts but by the people. Germany was an important player in both world wars after which it emerged as a successful democratic nation.
Aroneanu, E. (1996). Inside the concentration camps: Eyewitness accounts of life in Hitler’s death camps. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Bideleux, R., & Taylor, R. (1996). European integration and disintegration: East and west. London: Routledge.
Brady, J. And Wiliarty, S. (2002). How Culture Matters: Culture and Social Change in the Federal Republic of Germany . German Politics and Society, 20 (2).
Cia.gov (n.d.). CIA – The World Factbook. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html [Accessed: 1 Dec 2012].
Dale, G. (2010). Who Were “The People’? Classes and Movements in East Germany, 1989 . Capital & Class, 34 (2).
Farmer, A. (2007). Hitler and the Holocaust: Alan Farmer Assesses the Personal Responsibility of the Fuhrer . History Review, 58.
Fuller, L. (1999). Where was the working class?: Revolution in Eastern Germany. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
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Hahn, E. (1995). German Historical Institute. In: Hahn, E. et al. eds. (1995). Cornerstone of Democracy, The West German Grundgesetz, 1949-1989. 1st ed. Washington D.C: German Historical Institute, pp.7-37.
Hartleb, F. (2007). Party-Based Euro-Skepticism in Germany . Romanian Journal of Political Science, 7 (2).
Jarausch, K. (2006). After Hitler, Re-civilizing Germans, 1945-1995 . New York: Oxford University Press.
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Padgett, Stephen. (1999). Organizing Democracy in Eastern Germany: Interest Groups in Post-Communist Society. Cambridge University Press.
Simons, H. (1951). The Bonn Constitution and its Government. In: Morgenthau, H. eds. (1951). Germany and the Future of Europe . 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp.114-130.
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We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.