Biomechanics of the Shoulder
Since the time of Leonardo di Vinci’s pioneering exploration of the human anatomy, man has recognized the perfect union of form and function found in the shoulder joint. Providing a fortuitous combination of mobility and stability, the shoulder joint complex permits a wide range of motion that differentiates human arm movement from that of lower animals. Examined from the unique perspective offered by modern biomechanical research, the shoulder joint is considered to have played a pivotal role in the human evolutionary process, enabling man to better utilize projectile weapons by developing accurate throwing techniques, among other advantageous adaptive qualities. Today, the study of shoulder biomechanics is an essential component of clinical orthopedic care, sports medicine, mechanical injury rehabilitation and a wide array of other fields. By conducting a thorough review of the prevailing research on shoulder biomechanics, the splendidly simple yet efficiently effective structural composition of this foundational joint can be more fully revealed. The following literature review is intended to demonstrate the biomechanical perfection of the human shoulder, synthesizing clinical research published during the last two decades in an attempt to assess the important part played by this joint in facilitating efficient, painless and powerful movements.
Foundations of Biomechanical Study
Although the various forms of human movement have been studied for centuries on an individual basis — with skeletal, muscular, neurological and sensory aspects of movement forming the basis of entire fields of empirical medical inquiry — the concept of biomechanics has only recently emerged to describe the intricately complex synergy of activities which occurs in concert whenever people throw a ball or sketch a portrait. As a relatively recent contribution to anatomical research, biomechanics was devised largely to combine elements of several branches within modern movement science while forming an integrated model. When the totality of automatic internal processes which dictate even the most imperceptible of movements is fully considered, with “the neuromuscular system acting to control the release of metabolic energy for the purpose of generating controlled patterns of tension at the tendon … (and) that waveform serving as a function of the physiological characteristics of the muscle” (Winter, 2009), it is quite evident that biomechanical research is essential to furthering knowledge within a number of fields. As a founding member of the Canadian Society for Biomechanics, and the author of scholarly research on the subject which spans several decades, David A. Winters is one of the world’s foremost authorities on the biomechanical nature of human locomotion, and he has observed of “the relationship between the sensory system, the neurological pathways, the muscles, the skeletal system … (that) the essential characteristic of this total system is that it is converging in nature” (Winter, 2009). This concept of convergence is a crucial to the modern comprehension of biomechanics, because a rapid acceleration in the rate of technological advancement has enabled scientists, doctors, surgeons and other specialists to more fully explore the collaborative way in which bodily movement is initiated, directed and controlled.
Structure of the Shoulder
The human shoulder is an especially effective assemblage comprised of just three bones — the clavicle or collarbone, the scapula or shoulder blade, and the humerus or upper arm bone — as well as the network of connected tendons, ligaments, and muscles in the neck and arm. The colloquial term “shoulder joint” is generally used in reference to the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints, which are the primary joints located within the shoulder structure. In humans, the point where the humerus connects to the scapula, with the head of the bone fitting into the glenoid fossa, is considered to be the shoulder joint. In biomechanical terms, this unique arrangement is an extension of optimal evolutionary design, as “the development of a more laterally directed glenoid cavity of the scapula and a longer and more laterally twisted clavicle allowed for a freer mobility to raise the arm and facilitated vertical climbing” (Veeger & Van Der Helm, 2007). Several muscles actively contribute to the process of internal rotation within the shoulder, including the anterior ?bers of the deltoid, the latissimus dorsi, the teres major, the pectoralis major, and the subscapularis (Patel, Gustafson & Jastifer, 2012). The presence of the fibrocartilaginous labrum, as well as the inclusion of both a constrained capsule and glenohumeral ligaments, serves to increase the shoulder’s stability during movement. However, this static stabilizing structures is provided with an extended level of support by the musculature structure surrounding the shoulder girdle, a design which optimizes dynamic stability. A specialized muscle known as the rotator cuff not also works as a dynamic stabilizer, while contributing to the shoulder’s passive stability in light of its proximity to and positioning around the glenohumeral joint. This combination of static and dynamic stabilizers is reactive to various forms of force applied by the glenohumeral joint, ensuring stability during different positions throughout the shoulder’s biomechanical motion arc (Lugo, King & Ma, 2008).
Research on Shoulder Biomechanics
Biomechanical measurement of shoulder movement and range of motion is typically expressed as flexion and extension (movement elevating the humerus away from the anterior thorax within the sagittal plane), abduction (elevation within the coronal plane), and internal-external rotation (axial rotation of the humerus when the arm is held in an adducted position) (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). Due to the shoulder’s fundamental importance to many movements which are crucial to everyday life — such as driving, writing, throwing, lifting, pulling and climbing — a substantial portion of biomechanical research has focused on this area of the body. Sports medicine specialists publish comprehensive analyses of the impact of pitching baseballs and passing footballs, and orthopedic surgeons continually improve shoulder reconstruction surgeries to restore range of movement during recovery from serious injuries, and biomechanics forms the foundation of these advancements. Our growing understanding of the biomechanical nature of human movement has enabled doctors to anatomical experts to discover that “during normal motion, the scapula will upwardly rotate and posteriorly tilt on the thorax during elevation of the arm in flexion, abduction, scapular plane abduction, or unrestricted overhead reaching & #8230; (while) scapulothoracic internal or external rotation is less consistent during arm elevation” (Ludewig & Braman, 2011). Insights such as these are extremely informative in terms of orthopedic diagnostics, post-surgery rehabilitation, and preventative medicine, because the precise calibration of several interconnected variables is necessary to facilitate proper range of motion and joint movement in the shoulder. By expanding the base of biomechanical knowledge pertaining to the shoulder’s unique muscular, skeletal and structural construction, the scientific and medical research community has provided an invaluable resource for the improvement of diagnostic and treatment methods with a wide range of specializations.
Medical Diagnostic Implications of Shoulder Biomechanics
The degradation of rotator cuff capability and shoulder flexibility can occur whenever this delicate arrangement of muscles, bones, ligaments and tendons is subjected to an inordinate amount of pressure, stress or fatigue. Rotator cuff disease, shoulder impingement, clavicle malunion and localized soreness are just a few of the dozens of afflictions which can restrict range of motion in the shoulder, causing severe physical distress for patients suffering from these maladies. Research on the biomechanical properties of the shoulder has spawned a host of advances within the realm of diagnostic medicine, because “any quantitative assessment of human movement must be preceded by a measurement and description phase, and if more meaningful diagnostics are needed, a biomechanical analysis is usually necessary” (Winter, 2009). For example, computational studies on the effect of clavicle injury on shoulder movement have consistently indicated that “with progressive clavicular shortening, there is a resulting functional change in the biomechanics of the shoulder including a clinically signi-can’t change in the moment generating capacity about the glenohumeral joint” (Patel, Gustafson & Jastifer, 2012). Findings such as this are crucial from a biomechanical perspective, because the interconnected nature of the total system containing the shoulder and its surrounding components has wide ranging implications for future advances in the treatment of neck, arm, and chest injuries. Professional athletes and those who pursue an active personal lifestyle are especially concerned with advances in shoulder biomechanics, because torn ligaments and rotator cuffs can adversely affect one’s ability to pick a ball up off of the ground, let alone throw or catch one during the heat of athletic competition. Proper biomechanical technique when moving the shoulder is perhaps the most effective step in preventing traumatic stresses from occurring within this crucial region of the body.
Incorporating the emerging science of biomechanics into the wide array of medical and therapeutic fields involving anatomical care of the shoulder has provided immediate dividends for physicians, physical therapists, orthopedists, and patients. For example, research on the biomechanics of the shoulder has revealed that “disruption of stabilizing structures can cause clinical manifestations of pain or instability & #8230; (while) injuries and pathologic processes can potentially cause similar clinical presentations,” which is why it is crucial to “understand the etiology of these different causative factors so that we can offer effective treatment for patients suffering from shoulder instability” (Lugo, Kung & Ma, 2008). Biomechanics is simply the latest advancement in the understanding of anatomical design, and the field’s inherently integrative approach is well-suited to the methodological framework preferred by modern medical specialists, enabling them to investigate shoulder issues involving soreness and pain, reduced range of motion, and the inability to lift, throw or otherwise put pressure on the joint system. As a wider segment of American society embraces an active lifestyle — exercising, weightlifting, running and swimming more often and more intensely than ever before — torn rotator cuffs, separated shoulders and other common biomechanical impairments are all too common occurrences in emergency rooms around the country. By continuing to expand the base of knowledge related to biomechanics of the shoulder, the medical community can provide more effective and efficient treatment of orthopedic afflictions, rehabilitate patients during the post-surgery recovery phase to restore full range of motion, and strengthen ligaments and tendons to prevent stress from causing inordinate amounts of damage. Biomechanics builds upon di Vinci’s original conception of human anatomy as a total system of synthesized motion and movement, and because the shoulder is one of the crucial joints in facilitating everyday activity, shoulder biomechanics should be prioritized within the medical community.
Ludewig, P.M., & Braman, J.P. (2011). Shoulder impingement: biomechanical considerations in rehabilitation. Manual therapy, 16(1), 33-39. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3010321/
Lugo, R., Kung, P., & Ma, C.B. (2008). Shoulder biomechanics. European journal of radiology, 68(1), 16-24. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0720048X08001277
Nordin, M., & Frankel, V.H. (Eds.). (2001). Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system.
Wolters Kluwer Health.
Patel, B., Gustafson, P.A., & Jastifer, J. (2012). The effect of clavicle malunion on shoulder
biomechanics; A computational study. Clinical Biomechanics, 27(5), 436-442. Retrieved
Veeger, H.E.J., & Van Der Helm, F.C.T. (2007). Shoulder function: the perfect compromise between mobility and stability. Journal of biomechanics, 40 (10), 2119-2129. Retrieved
Winter, D.A. (2009). Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. John Wiley & Sons,
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.