Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction with the UN, most of the deaths in Asia are caused by air pollution and fifty two million people died by particle air pollution in 2010. (Vidal, 2012, p. 4)
Air pollution causes cognitive decline, strokes and heart attacks. Thus with the rise in automobile use the air pollution in India is far above the legal limits of 100 micrograms per cubic metre. This can rise to nearly 1,000 microgram’s during festivals like Diwali. (Vidal, 2012, p. 4) Worldwide, over three million people a year died from air pollution in 2010, and air pollution is ranked world’s top 10 lists of killer diseases. Some of the solutions explored for this situation include exploring car and fuel technology that are current from 1999. That is the tip of the iceberg. The second problem is that the fossil fuel will be finished in the next fifty or so years, and then it would be better to find sustainable alternate energy now itself, both for transportation and for other industries. Nations that now have oil are being contentiously chaperoned by the other nations for the oil and this has set an unhealthy political trend.
Apart from the pollution angle and availability angle the search for a hybrid vehicle began with the Middle East crisis of the 1970s. Actually the search began with a cleaner way of producing more electricity which could then replace all other forms of energy. Thus solar energy, wind energy, thermal energy etc. was tried. Locomotives with diesel engines were silently replaced by electric engines. There was a lot of concern for the changes in the environment that was brought about by the pollution and other issues that brought generation of power also in focus. The unmitigated consumption of oil that was being imported into the United States caused the birth of the concept. (Eto, 1996)
The history of these efforts began in the 1970s in response to the oil crisis and the increasing dependence on outside sources of oil and the need to conserve power on account of the environmental effects of electricity generation, the questionable method being nuclear power. By the 1980s many states began providing incentives to follow the “least-cost or integrated resource planning principles. Electric utility DSM programs reached their largest size in 1993, accounting for $2.7 billion of utility spending or about one percent of U.S. utility revenues.” (Eto, 1996)
Thereafter the spending has peeked off owing to the changing business interest and the industry being restructured. The changes being made in the adoption of new technology and the concern for the environmental protection in the process of electricity generation is current and the U.S. electric utility DSM programs are the result of and probably also are the cause of the electricity industry restructuring. (Eto, 1996) These changes also created a lot of changes in technology and the quest for alternate sources of energy. The demand side analysis was also a tool that this crisis shaped. The consumer’s interest in the ecology has the motor industry trying to come up with vehicles that run on clean fuels and one solution is the hybrid fuel machine that uses both the clean fuel and a little petrol. (Imperial College, Environmental Planning and Management)
The electric engines are by far the cleanest vehicles. The modern market thus is based on the demand for the cleanest vehicle. The problem is that the hybrids and electric powered vehicles are very costly and cannot be afforded by the ordinary man. Corporate are therefore wresting with the problem of making cheap and affordable vehicles and clean and cheap fuel. The paradigm that has to overcome is the generation of energy from costly sources like the sun, Hydroelectric projects and so on which has to have investment by the concerned countries. Thus the whole thing argued is a part of a clean environment and environmental planning thus is also an important process in production, urban planning and city administration. In the automobile industry it is also a market niche that could help the company progress. (Imperial College, Environmental Planning and Management)
The problem is to cut the cost of manufacture because consumers will not pay more than necessary, even if they are concerned about the environment. The consumer would spend a limited in amount on something that gives him the maximum satisfaction. (Stone, 1988, p. 18) During the 1960s the environmental movement and the “small planet” consciousness changed the ecological worldview causing investigations into sustainability both for individuals and organization planning and the necessity of adjusting economic factors to the social needs which calls for a different set of planning specifically with the impacts on environment for each project. This applies to all models of development. (Wheeler, 2004, p. 34) Taking the fuel issue and the hybrid vehicles the progress between 2000 and 2012 has been tremendous. Examination of the principles and the method of the working of different vehicles and their advantages are in order. What is hybrid and alternate fuel vehicle?
Alternate energy vehicles- the types and principles:
The most considered alternate energy is the stored electrical energy. Thus there are now Hybrid-electric vehicles — HEVs which use the power of the gasoline engines and electric motors to gain fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. Regenerative Braking is used in such vehicles to use electric motor resistance causing the wheels to slow down. “In return, the energy from the wheels turns the motor, which functions as a generator, converting energy normally wasted during coasting and braking into electricity, which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor.” (U.S. Department of Energy: How Hybrids Work: Fuel Economy U.S. Govt Issue)
Electric Motors are thus used in conjunction with the conventional engine and the electric motor gives the energy necessary for accelerating, passing, or hill climbing. Thus the use of the fuel is put to the minimum and the electric motor alone provides power for low-speed driving conditions where internal combustion engines are least efficient. (U.S. Department of Energy: How Hybrids Work: Fuel Economy U.S. Govt Issue) This also helps in stopping the wastage of fuel while the vehicle idles at signals for example. In such times the electric motor takes over and the engine is shut off, thus preventing wasted energy from idling. (U.S. Department of Energy: How Hybrids Work: Fuel Economy U.S. Govt Issue) This is the basic schema of the type of vehicle and shall be explained further with the following figure.
To explain further the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have an internal combustion engine and electric motor. They use batteries to power an electric motor and use another fuel, such as gasoline or diesel, to power an internal combustion engine or other propulsion source. This use of electricity from the grid to run the vehicle brings down the operating costs and petroleum consumption, relative to conventional vehicles. (Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site)
These vehicles have both the Electric Motor and Engine Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have an internal combustion engine or other propulsion source and an electric motor, which uses energy stored in batteries. Commuting may be done on all-electric power, plug in the vehicle to charge it at night, and be ready for another all-electric commute the next day. The internal combustion engine is used when battery fails or there is intense requirement for heating or air conditioning. If the vehicle is driven for a short distance then it need use only electric power. (Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site) In such models the vehicle is suited to use the public grid and can be charged at gas stations by plugging the vehicle to an electric source and this is clean and without attendant problems as with fossil fuel.
The working of the system is shown in the Figure given here. “Parallel hybrid operation connects the engine and the electric motor to the wheels through mechanical coupling. Both the electric motor and the engine can drive the wheels directly. Series plug-in hybrids use only the electric motor to drive the wheels. The internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity for the motor. General Motors — GM uses a slightly modified version of this design in the Chevy Volt. GM refers to this design as an extended range electric vehicle — EREV. The electric motor drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at highway speeds when the battery is depleted.” (Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site)
Modern Hybrid Vehicles Schema:
There is a combination of processes that involve the combustion engine, electromotor and an accumulator with the modern combustion engines runs in a range of 30-40%. Gas engines’ effectiveness is on the bottom on the range while the diesel engines are somewhat better. The engine must be at optimal conditions. Fuel is wasted when the car is at idle position when the engine consumes fuel while the car does not perform any activity. The other drawback of the combustion engine sought to be overcome include the limited range of RPM the use of transmission is necessary. “The number of gears is usually also limited which creates yet another reason why the engine cannot work at its optimum conditions.” (LCE, 2013)
To overcome this use of alternate fuel, including steam, ice and other forms of combustion have been tried to create the energy even when the car idles. The use of electric engines is justified because of the fact that electric engines’ effectiveness is at 95% and all that at a wide range of RPM and load. The linear combustion engine is suitable for serial hybrid vehicles. The concept illustrated in the figure below shows that the Combustion engine has no mechanical connection with wheel, but only supplies electrical power to a storage battery. Thus there is no need for transmission as the traction motors can work effectively in a wide range of RPM. There is also no need for a differential gear when two engines are used. Additional smaller four smaller engines one for each wheel resulting in a full-fledged four-wheel drive without a need for a complicated axle differentiation. The engine completely turns off when the accumulators are charged. (LCE, 2013)
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles — PHEVs can be charged with electricity like pure electric vehicles and run under engine power like hybrid electric vehicles. PHEVs are powered by two energy sources — an energy conversion unit and an energy storage device. The energy conversion unit can be powered by gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or other fuels. “The batteries can be charged by plugging into a standard 110-volt electrical outlet-capability conventional hybrid electric vehicles do not have-in addition to being charged by the energy conversion unit when needed.” (Virginia Clean Cities, 2013) The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles the entire power comes from the stored electricity. Thus either pure electricity can be used for short trips as commuting and can alternate with the engine can be used when longer trips are required, the benefit is that the PHEV does not need to be plugged in to operate. In future there can be a two-way connection between the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and the local utility grid. (Virginia Clean Cities, 2013)
The electric engines are by far the cleanest vehicles. At present to reduce costs and pollution the hybrid systems enumerated above could also be used. This will flow with the current market because these vehicles combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. The engine and the electric motor could be used alternately thus the internal combustion engine is used when battery fails or there is intense requirement for heating or air conditioning and these vehicle batteries of the hybrid electric vehicle can be charged by an outside electric power source, by the internal combustion engine, or through regenerative braking.
It can be run on battery power, and batteries can be charged from the grid, solar panels, or other means that could be explored. This would help relieve the dependence on fossil fuel and the horrors of pollution like deaths caused by air pollution and health problems like cognitive decline, strokes and heart attacks. Thus with the rise in automobile use the manufacturers must be compelled to stop manufacture of vehicles that use fossil fuel but instead make it mandatory to create and market only hybrid vehicles. Apart from this the concerns are that the U.S. is the biggest consumer off petroleum from the Middle East and the resources in the Middle East may either dry up or may not be available for use by hostile conditions. Further other nations are waking up to the hazards of pollution and may insist on zero pollution vehicles. Car manufacturers therefore must switch to these models now itself.
Alternative Fuels Data Center. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site.
Eto, Joseph. 1996. The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.
Imperial College. Environmental Planning and Management. Imperial College Press.
LCE. 2013. Modern Hybrid Vehicles Schema.
Stone, P.A. 1988. Development and Planning Economy: Environmental and Resource. E & FN Spon: London.
U.S. Department of Energy. How Hybrids Work: Fuel Economy U.S. Govt Issue.
Vidal, John. 2012. Pollution from car emissions killing millions in China and IndiaStudy published by Lancet says surge in car use in south and east Asia killed 2.1m people prematurely in 2010. The Guardian News Paper UK, p. 4.
Virginia Clean Cities. 2013. What is a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle? Plug-in Hybrid Schematic.
Wheeler, Stephen M. 2004. Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities. Routledge: New York.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.