Effects of Cigarette Smoking discussion

Please use this document as a template for your proposal by filling in the sections with blue font.

SUBJECT: Effects of cigarette smoking on health
RESEARCH QUESTION: Are all types of smoking harmful to human health?
CLAIM: Cigarette smoking can lead to health complications such as lung cancer, passive smoking, and using e-cigarettes can equally cause adverse health.
RESEARCH PROPOSAL: In developing the project, I had various thoughts. I had were how to prove that any smoking, whether passive or  E-cigarette, is harmful to the body. The major challenge would be finding evidence-based research, which shows that cigarette smoking has a direct relationship with lung cancer. One way to overcome the problem is through doing extensive reading and research for quality papers, which provide proof that cigarette smoking is harmful to health.


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Source: Use an APA in-text citation 1st Pro-Point:


2nd Pro-Point:


3rd Pro-Point:


(Parascandola & Xiao, 2019) Smoking is the primary cause of new cases of cancer in China. Recently, a new diagnosis of cancer is increasing as the rate of smoking in the region increases as well. Other factors alongside smoking increase the risk of cancer such as the intensity of smoking, the age that the patients start smoking, and area of residence (urban and rural) Second-hand smoking also has negative impacts on the people exposed. China has many people exposed to second-hand smoking, which is affecting their health. The country lacks effective strategies to protect the non-smokers from harm. There is a need to reduce smoking prevalence to minimize the burden that comes with cancer-related to smoking. There is a need to determine the most effective interventions to reduce the number of deaths and new cancer diagnoses.
Tang,Wu, Lee, Xia,Deng, & Moreira,(2019). E-cigarettes are not a safe alternative to tobacco. E-cigarette smoking affects the health of the people who smoke it. There is a need to stop advertising it as a safe alternative. An experiment carried out of mice showed that the E-cigars contain lung and bladder carcinogen alongside nicotine. The outcomes that occurred in the mouse are the same in the human cell. E-cigarette cause lung cancer because it contains carcinogenic substances that are harmful to the lungs.
Ellen & Nancy, (2017) Cigarette smoking has adverse impacts on users. Smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer. The substances in the cigarette are carcinogenic and cause damage to the lungs. Second-hand smoking is not as harmless as people think. People who smoke passively have increased chances of developing health-related issues. There is thus a need to formulate policies that prevent the public from getting exposure to cigarette smoke. The E-cigarette is not as safe as the cigarette companies claim. The cigarettes can pass on the carcinogenic substances to the user. Many people who use e-cigarettes contract lung cancer just like those who smoke the regular cigarette.






Ellen, B., & Nancy, S. (2017). Cigarette Smoking: An Overview. Points of View: Cigarette


Parascandola, M., & Xiao, L. (2019). Tobacco and the lung cancer epidemic in

China. Translational Lung Cancer Research8(S1), S21-S30. doi: 10.21037/tlcr.2019.03.12

Tang, M., Wu, X., Lee, H., Xia, Y., Deng, F., & Moreira, A. et al. (2019). Electronic-cigarette

smoke induces lung adenocarcinoma and urothelial bladder hyperplasia in mice. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences116(43), 21727-21731. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1911321116


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