Diagnosis of Cancer
There is a wide array of tools that are used to diagnose cancer. The most common methods are:
where samples of the tumor are removed during surgery or during less invasive procedures and examined under a microscope for presence of cancer cells.
Endoscopy — a flexible plastic tube with a camera on its end is inserted into body organs and cavities taking a picture of the suspicious area. There are various types of scopes each used for a specific area. For instance, a laparoscope is used for the abdominal cavity whilst a colonoscope is used for the colon.
Diagnostic imagining — this includes methods such as MRIs, x-rays, CAT scans, ultrasounds, and PET scans that are separately or additionally used to locate the locations and extent of the cancer.
Blood tests — Some tumor marketers (i.e. substances related by tumors) can be indicated in the blood. Higher than normal prostrate specific antigen levels for instance can indicate cancer. However, blood tests by themselves are inconclusive (MD Anderson Cancer Center).
Staging of cancer
Staging is the process of discovering the extent of cancer in the body and its localization. This tells the physician the stage of growth that the specific cancer is in order to predict the person’s diagnosis and to plan the treatment. Early stage breast cancer, for instance, may just need surgery and radiation, whereas a more advanced stage may need chemotherapy. Knowing the stage also helps doctors predict the course of the cancer.
The stage is generally based on three main factors that are called T, N, and M. T refers to the size of the primary (or original tumor) and analysis of whether or not it has spread into neighboring tissue. M refers to whether or not the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes; whereas m refers to the situation of the cancer affecting distant areas of the body.
Some cancers, depending on their body origin, are not staged this way. For instance, leukemia impacts the blood and bone marrow and does so throughout the body therefore the T, N, M staging is irrelevant. Similarly, too, Cerebral-based cancers only spread to other parts of the brain not to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body; hence they too are not staged with this acronym.
Staging occurs at the time of diagnosis and is represented by two types: (1) clinical staging — that estimates the extent of cancer based on the exams and tests used and (2) Pathologic staging – that employs information extracted during surgery in order to determine the type and extent of cancer.
Other factors that determine the stage include: Grade (degree of abnormality of the cancer); cell type of cancer; tumor location; and tumor marker levels.
The stage of a cancer remains constant over time even if the cancer progresses, returns, or seems to be in remission. Even when restaging occurs (i.e. when post-treatment tests are employed to discover the extent of the effect), does the former staging rarely, if ever, change (American Cancer Society)
Complications of cancer
Cancer may impact the patient in numerous ways ranging from physical, emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual functioning and extending to his vocational life where he may lose his job as a result as well as effecting his family and friends.
Cancers may also cause the person to be alienated from his friends due to the feeling that he is afflicted in ways that they are not and that he or she is, accordingly, different to they. He may also be humiliated by his having the disease or may be avoided by others who do not know how to approach the patient or are discomfited by doing so, particularly since cancer indicates mortality and mortality is one aspect of life’s facts that individuals generally like to avoid.
Other feelings of inferiority and shame are caused by loss of autonomy and independence, vulnerability, and mutilation and most frightening of all is the fear of death. Clinical depression can easily become an outcome.
Some may also experience psychiatric disorder as a result, with the Psychological Collaborative Oncology Group finding that 47% of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer fell into psychiatric disorder with two thirds having depressed or anxious moods whilst one third experienced major depression, delirium, anxiety disorder, or some other major mental illness (Sandoval-Cros, 1999)
Methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
The three most common types of effects causing physical and psychological consequences are anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and delirium. Methods used for reduction of their symptoms can be spread to other negative areas too.
Drugs can be used for anxiety. These include benzodiazepines such as lorzepam or clonazapem. Busiprone can be helpful too and severe anxiety can be treated with other, more intensive drugs. Progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, biofeedback, and hypnosis are also effective.
Treatment for depression consists of a mixture of psychotherapy (family, group (e.g. support groups), or individual) and pharmacotherapy. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is particularly helpful for depression where the individual is pointed to a sense of self-efficacy helping him regain his sense of independence and esteem as well as cognitively review his situation in more helpful ways. The therapist also helps the patient (and family) integrate the illness in their lives in order to better cope with it. Social support and other resources are dug up and worked on.
Antidepressants may be offered too which consist of serotenergic agents and psychostimulants. All drugs may have side effects such as insomnia and apathy.
Symptomatic treatment for delirium consists of using neuroleptic agents (e.g. haloperidol) that serve to control agitation and hallucinations and antianxiety agents (e.g. lorazapem) that serve to reduce anxiety (Sandoval-Cros, 1999).
Side effects of treatment
Other side effects of cancer treatment may include permanent change or damage to organs of body, including heart, lugs, nerves, and kidneys, from chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may also introduce a second cancer that may emerge much later.
Common effects of chemotherapy include: nausea and vomiting; fatigue; hair loss; pain; anemia; infection; blood clotting problems; mouth, gum, and throat problems; diarrhea and constipation; nerve and muscle effects; effects on skin and nails; radiation recall; kidney and bladder effects; flue-like symptoms; fluid retention, and effects on sexual organs and sexuality (MedicineNet.com). No wonder, many cancer patients become depressed.
American Cancer Society Staging www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/staging
MD Anderson Cancer Center: Diagnostic tests www.mdanderson.org/…/diagnostic-tests/index.html
MedicineNet.com: Chemotherapy and cancer treatment, coping with side effects www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21716
Sandoval-Cros CJ. (1999) Common psychological problems in the cancer patient Moffitt Cancer Center
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.