Decision Making detailed Analysis

Anesthesia demands a lot from physicians in regards to decision making and technical capability, the former especially usually influenced by pressure and frequently changing medical situations. Traditionally, trainers emphasize more on technical abilities as well as knowledge acquisition. But besides behavioral elements of simulation, there is little emphasis on the decision-making process. The author of this article describes the application of a modified way of decision evaluation for helping in the decision-making process both in training a more structured method to trainees and functioning in a clinical situation.

Traditional Decision Analysis

Decision evaluation is an approach that assists in the decision-making process, taking into consideration all probable outcomes and score them based on their occurrence probability and utility. That enables a person to designate a specific decision as better than the others. Decision-makers derive the probabilities from published works and obtain utilities from interviewing individual patients.One example is the case of a person suffering from a hypothetical tumor. In such a scenario, three possible treatment alternatives are drug therapy, surgery, no therapy at all. While both drug treatment and surgery have higher chances of curing the tumor, the latter carries the potential of a significant disfigurement while the former could lead to kidney failure. With no therapy, there is little room for an unprecedented remission.

The table below illustrates the probabilities of all the potential outcomes. Most doctors are familiar with this tabular illustration but not the patients. Additionally, the tabulation does not offer and intuitive demonstration of the probable paths through which a patient could pass.

  Death Survival Intact Survival with Disfigurement Survival with Renal Failure
Surgical Treatment 30.0% 30.0% 40.0% 0.0%
Drug Treatment 30.0% 40.0% 0.0% 30.0%
No Treatment 70.0% 30.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Table 1

Decision analysis is essential since it assists doctors to choose between the therapy alternatives as follows. The physician first outlines the treatment options graphically through a decision tree, as illustrated in Fig. 1, except for the grey columns. The tree displays every possible outcome for each treatment, and the nodes signify the paths influenced by decisions and those that the decision cannot impact, that is, decision and chance nodes.

Figure 2

This decision tree is an advancement from traditional tabular illustration since most people understand graphical representation of risks and choices quite easily. Next, the clinicians assist the patient in assigning a utility to all outcomes often between zero and one. They apply different techniques to achieve this task ranging from analogies based on trade-offs or gambling to simple linear soring.

If a patient allocates a utility of zero (0) to death and one (1.0) to survival while renal failure and disfigurement score 0.50, respectively, then multiplying the probability of every probable result in Table 1 by these utilities gives composite values for all options as illustrated by the grey column in Figure 1. From this example, the sum of the treatment values implies that drug treatment with a total of 0.55 is the best alternative for the patient.This procedure may appear complicated at first, and the outcome quite obvious. Still, the power of decision evaluation lies in its capability to integrate published proof and design treatment for each patient’s preference. For instance, an athlete patient may treasure physical health over appearance and thus assign disfigurement as a higher value than renal failure. As such, the patient would prefer surgery over drug treatment. One can also study the impact of various probabilities.

Also, this technique introduces a more comprehensive and rational approach to the medical decision-making process that is usually absent in the conventional, unstructured method. The traditional approach is often influenced by a distorted risk impression and anecdotal experience. Moreover, studies indicate that experienced professionals tasked with making rapid decisions, specially selects the initial plausible that comes to mind without comparing it with other options.


First, there could be little or no published literature from which to derive probabilities, particularly in fields like anesthesia. For instance, the likelihood of complications resulting from using spinal anesthesia in a rare disorder could be unknown. Secondly, there could be many alternative treatments that could complicate the process if included in the procedure.For instance, in the hypothetical scenario above, a patient can undergo surgery followed by drug therapy and vice versa. Alternatively, there could be various kinds of operations or drug treatments, each with a unique range of possible outcomes. Third, it could be impossible or challenging to acquire a significant utility value. For example, the results could be so complicated for the patient to comprehend their actual consequences, or the outcomes could have insignificant relevance to the patient.

Fourth, the procedure is more complicated compared to the traditional unstructured decision-making process. Lastly, both doctors and patients could hesitate to take part in the process since it reduces the art of medicine to a numbers system, and the physicians could be less conversant with. They have to ignore their usually respected gut feelings.These shortcomings have contributed to the limited integration of decision analysis into medical practice. In anesthesia, there is only an occasional illustration of the technique often restricted to choices influenced by economics. For example, factors like side effects and cost determine the method to use instead of patients’ needs.

Modified Decision Analysis

The author proposes a method that retains several advantages of the conventional approach. These advantages include a more graphical and structured path towards decision-making and integration of proof where it is available but without dependence on quantitative analysis or patients’ scores possible outcomes. Instead, this method emphasizes clinical decision making and the doctors’ experience value instead of consulting patients.As such, this approach does not supersede the traditional technique in this respect. Additionally, by integrating the experience of anesthetists to substitute hard medical proof where it lacks, this approach loses the element of objectivity of the simple decision evaluation method. Nevertheless, in this aspect, this method closely rhymes with an experience-dependent naturalistic decision-making process followed by most professionals.The author argues that the proposed method has value as a clinical and teaching aid, as illustrated by the following hypothetical cases. Under the obstetric settings, the clinical decision-making process is usually under absolute pressure, and thus the following illustrations refer to this practice area.

Figure 2

Analysis of the Decision

The primary decision in this scenario is whether to apply general or regional anesthesia. There is a challenge that exists with conventional intuitive decision-making is such an acute case. While one might find it easy to regard the next option facing a person, it is quite challenging to proceed and consider the likely results of the options regarding frequency and severity.In such a case, it is possible to be unexpectedly influenced by individual experiences, and specific emphasis on present teaching such that the prospect of failed or challenging intubation overrides other concerns. A more graphical and structured analysis allows a person to study this decision.

Lastly, this technique influences a person to ask focused and practical literature questions. For instance, evaluating the probability of a woman treated with magnesium sulfate developing convulsions. Such information is essential in obstetric anesthetic practice, although few people are familiar with it, nor is it quickly obvious. For example, the landmark publication that determined magnesium sulfate as a preferable therapy after eclampsia did not cover this information.


Several theories exist that explaining various clinical decision-making processes. The modified decision analysis approach described in this article is one of the several models applied in this field. This method is significant as a teaching tool and for aiding clinical decision-making during retrospective and planning analyses of challenging cases. Nonetheless, it does eliminate standard approaches to choosing between two alternatives, especially in situations requiring immediate or urgent decisions. However, the method emphasizes the significance of applying existing evidence in a more focused and structured way that the ones often applied and positions this in the context of anesthetists’ experience. Therefore, one can use this method to complement the action of choosing therapy options for complicated scenarios.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!

order custom essay paper

What Will You Get?

We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.

Experienced Writers

Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.

24/7 Customer Support

Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.

Complete Confidentiality

Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.

Authentic Sources

We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.

Order Tracking

You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9650+ Students for Writing

From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.

Preferred Writer

Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.

Grammar Check Report

Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.

One Page Summary

You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.

Plagiarism Report

You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Delegate Your Challenging Writing Tasks to Experienced Professionals

Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality

All samples
Article review
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Research paper
Article review
A Holistic Response to Crime Victimization
View this sample
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Post Covid-19 Economic Recovery
View this sample
Research paper
Final Case Analysis: Organizational Ethical Dilemmas
Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)
Business Studies
View this sample
Research paper
Communicable Disease
View this sample
Research paper
Mental health
View this sample

It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


We Analyze Your Problem and Offer Customized Writing

We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

We Mirror Your Guidelines to Deliver Quality Services

We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • Active communication to understand requirements.

We Handle Your Writing Tasks to Ensure Excellent Grades

We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.

  • Thorough research and analysis for every order.
  • Deliverance of reliable writing service to improve your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now

error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code UNRIVALED