Culture on Learning Styles
Multiculturalism as a backdrop for culturally-based learning styles in Australia
The concept of multiculturalism was imported, according to one opponent of the idea, form Canadian politics “to represent a vague set of ideas which purportedly promotes the cultural and economic interests of certain non-Anglomorph sections of the Australian community” (Cooray 2000). Quite simply, however, it simply describes the fact that immigration has brought various ethnic and linguistic groups to Australia, arguably complicating an already bifurcated educational system — Anglo and Aboriginal — with additional sets of expectations to consider in both presenting educational material and in assessing academic achievement. Cooray thinks it is going too far to assert the right of each ethnic community to maintain its language and culture on Australian soil, especially with the help of publicly funded programmes.
Still, in the educational setting, it is necessary to “create a more open-textured and tolerant social environment” (Senator Gareth Evans, quoted by Cooray 2000) in order to be certain members of each ethnic group are able to take advantage of Australia’s educational system and even, as Cooray desires, become more “Australian” in the process.
In addition to language differences and a variety of unique customs, the multicultural population will also add varieties of religious experience (with apologies to philosopher William James) that will have influence upon the ways people learn, and in some cases, even on the choices they make on what to learn and where to learn.
Before determining what possible effect the culture of two of Australia’s ethnic populations might have on learning styles, it is important to understand how Anglomorphic Australia became multicultural: it is now, in fact, one of the world’s “most plural and multicultural societies” (Bouma 1995).
In 1947, most Australians were members of the Church of England, had a British background, ate meat pies and feared the Yellow Peril (Bouma 1995). After World War Ii, large numbers of immigrants — mainly British, but also a large number of Greeks and Italians — arrived and were expected “to fit in, to blend into Australian institutions, churches, and organizations, to adopt Australian cuisine, and to play Australian sport” (Bouma 1995). While in the case of Greeks and Italians, the language difference would have had an effect on classroom practice, by and large the European sensibilities were not so exotic that it was even necessary to think about variations in learning styles. Partly, the locus of emigration to Australia was determined by the government’s “White Australia” policy that limited access to Europeans. In the 1960s, however, that policy was scrapped, with the result that large numbers of migrants form Middle Eastern and Asian nations arrived (Bouma 1995). With that influx of people with not only different languages (with no commonality, as is arguable when referring to major European languages), but different religious backgrounds and different gender relations, it began to be advisable to wonder whether migrant children, or even those born to migrants after they had arrived in Australia, would require a different approach to education. Indeed, it might be prudent, especially in the case of the Arab immigrants, to wonder if the ethnic identification would be at odds with Australia’s educational system over the issue of gender.
While the in-migration might call for educational adjustment in Australian schools, at least, according to Bouma, it has been unlikely to cause strife, for several reasons. These are:
The relatively small size of the minority groups vis-a-vis the dominant but nearly equal Catholics and Anglicans, the lack of overlap between ethnic and religious difference, the lack of ghettoization, the fact that religious difference is not politicized, a long history of sorting out intergroup conflict through legislation and courts, and the existence of effective organizations promoting positive intergroup relations (Bouma 1995).
It is also interesting that this in-migration is likely to have less impact on Australia in the long-term than will relations with the Aboriginal population. The survival of Aboriginal culture and language “depends solely on what happens in Australia” whereas the “centres of Italian, Greek or Chinese culture are elsewhere. Whatever happens in Australia will have no consequence for the survival of these cultures in their respective homelands” (Cooray 2000). However, culture is not static, especially in communities which interact with each other (Cooray 2000). Over time, then, whether or not the unique learning styles of these populations are considered, the interplay between them and the indigenous Anglo-Australian population is likely to cause rapid cultural evolution, although:
When a small community interacts with a large community it is inevitable that the elements of the more prevalent culture will tend to predominate in the evolutionary outcome. Thus when a small group of Greeks or Italians translocate themselves into an Anglomorph environment, it is inevitable that they will become assimilated into the larger community if not in the first generation, in the generations to follow (Cooray 2000).
Again, this would seem to be easier for European cultures, having much in common with the foundation British culture of Australia, than for cultures such as those of the Middle East and Asia. Still, maintaining the cultural differences that result in learning differences over a long period is difficult. Maintaining cultural differences “needs an iron clad system of apartheid or self-imposed inward looking communal traditions” (Cooray 2000). While this is more likely with the Middle Eastern immigrants for a variety of reasons, if the children are in Australian schools, it is likely that assimilation is acceptable to the family, and the teachers then must grapple with the cultural expectations those children bring to the classroom. This may be slightly less prevalent for Asian immigrant children simply because, in the current global climate, they would not suffer from what Australians think they know about the culture as is arguably the case with those from the Arab world.
At this point, Cooray’s negative attitude toward government-sponsored multicultural programmes comes into play once again. He notes that “there is a difference between teaching language for its educational value and teaching it in pursuance of the illusory goals of multiculturalism…(and)… It must not be forgotten that the urgent demand of both educationists and ethnic Australians is to increase facilities for teaching English to migrants disadvantaged by language” (Cooray 2000), which will possibly hasten their assimilation and diminish the impact of culturally differentiated learning styles. Cooray (2000) also contends that, despite the cultural differences, the immigrants desire, overwhelmingly, to become culturally Australian. During the interim period, between an immigrant’s identification with his or her home country and making the transition to being Australian, the cultural expectations brought from the ‘old country’ will have an effect on the pace at which the immigrant learns and becomes Australian, and is thus a worthy topic for investigation. Cooray proposes that making too much of multiculturalism, however, is likely to be counterproductive. Cooray (1995) says Australia is fortunate in that it is able to “culturally unify diverse peoples with minimum trauma” (Cooray 1995), unlike Sri Lanka, Cooray’s own birth country, which has had unending party strife “Ever since the unifying element of a common language (English) was removed by chauvinistic politicians, (and) the two minor lingual communities have treated one another with mistrust and hostility” (Cooray 1995).
The effects on learning of ethnic communities
Yee (1996) believes the existence of ethnic enclaves serving new arrivals from different cultures has a positive effect on assimilation, at least if they are studied and the lessons applied to instruction. Yee recommends that teachers and students may study the growth and development of the relevant cultural enclaves, “the morphological characteristics of each site, the spatial distribution of the various ethnic groups and the languages or dialects spoken within each enclave, the pattern of economic activities and occupations, the architectural styles of buildings and places of worship, and the traditions and cultural festivities” (Yee 1996). Understanding these factors would conceivably help inform teachers regarding what to expect in student behaviors, learning and social; from that point, the teachers could look for ways to help students around any impediments regarding the major culture’s expectations.
While Cooray was almost completely opposed to multiculturalism, Yee finds that it is worthy of studying vis-a-vis the educational experience, as do Nassar-McMillan & Hakim-Larson (2003), who noted that the “relatively new, global focus on diversity has resulted in governmental and corporate ventures, among others, to educate, retrain, or otherwise restructure the thinking of individuals about populations different from their own.”
Some researchers classify four paradigms of culture: functionalist, interpretive, critical humanist, and critical structuralism (Martin & Nakayama 1999). Others, including the influential researcher, Geert Hofstede (1998), quantify the components of cultures so that one can discern “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another,” information essential to effective teaching of multicultural groups. Hofstede (1998) notes that “Families, schools, work places, authorities, political parties and religious bodies may mean quite different things in different nations.” In fact, the four factors Hofstede studied in the world’s major nations and cultures are broken down into categories that can be very useful in determining the cultural factors of Asians and Arabs in an Australian educational setting. Following are Hofstede’s four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the “extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally” (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as “the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people’s lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.”
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be “assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life” (Hofstede 1998). Its opposite is Femininity.
Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) measures how threatened a society’s members feel in uncertain or unknown situations. In “uncertainty avoiding nations, people are more expressive; in uncertainty tolerating nations the expression of feelings is inhibited” (Hofstede 1998). Although it may be a cliche, Britain (stiff upper lip, no shows of emotion) would rank low in UA, while the Arab states would rank high, a fact borne out by Hofstede’s research. Hofstede noted that a high UAI indicates the country has low tolerance for uncertainty, which, in turn, “creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty” (Hofstede 2005). The opposite ranking indicates “the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risk” (Hofstede 2005).
Influences on learning style derived from Hofstede’s classifications very quick comparison of Australia, the Arab World (which Hofstede investigated monolithically) and a representative Asian nation (which will have great areas of commonality with the others) can help determine what the learning styles of each area are likely to emphasize.
Australia’s cultural expectations
The Hofstede analysis for Australia puts its Individualism score at 90, the second highest country surveyed and right behind the United States, which is at 91. The concept of individuality is reinforced in daily life; privacy is the cultural norm and over-familiarity risk rebuff (Hofstede 2005). Moreover, the predominantly Australian religion, Christianity (50%), correlates with other Christian-based cultures; Individualism and Christianity correlate well (Hofstede 2005).
Power Distance (PDI) is low, at 36; the world average is 55. This means there is a great deal of perceived equality between societal levels, from families to government. “This orientation reinforces a cooperative interaction across power levels and creates a more stable cultural environment” (Hofstede 2005).
The Arab World’s cultural expectations
This analysis includes Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, and “demonstrates the Muslim faith plays a significant role in the people’s lives” (Hofstede 2005). The region exhibits a high Power Distance score (80) as well as high Uncertainty Avoidance (68). Hofstede interprets these numbers to man that:
These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. They are also highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society (Hofstede 2005).
Moreover, with both of these factors being high, it creates situations in which leaders are virtually all-powerful, and the rules they develop reinforce their control; armed insurrection, rather than diplomatic or democratic change, is the method by which rule is altered in these societies (Hofstede 2005). Hofstede also emphasizes that the high PD rating is not resented as it would be if a resident of a low PD nation traveled to one of high PD. “These populations have an expectation and acceptance that leaders will separate themselves from the group and this condition is not necessarily subverted upon the population, but rather accepted by the society as their cultural heritage” (Hofstede 2005), a factor which can have a significant effect on learning styles per se because the need for an authoritarian teacher would seem best suited to this population. The high UA rating means that, as far as students are concerned, strict rules and policies would be expected.
Most importantly for assessing cultural differences in learning styles, the Arab world scores third highest in the world on the Masculinity index; “This would indicate that while women in the Arab World are limited in their rights, it may be due more to Muslim religion rather than a cultural paradigm” (Hofstede 2005).
With its very low ranking on Individualism (38, against a world average of 64), the Arab world is a Collectivist society: this is “manifested in a close long-term commitment to the member ‘group’, that being a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules” (Hofstede 2005).
Arab society is more likely than other cultures to follow a virtual caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility; that being the case, it can be assumed that for students still operating within the ‘old country’ paradigm, education would not be seen as the boon Westerners consider it to be. Therefore, the learning style that results, from those in the lower portions of the caste system, would be likely to regard achievement as less meaningful than it is to Westerners, or, arguably, those of higher expectations.
Thailand’s cultural expectations
While it is in some ways representative of the rest of Asia, Thailand offers two equal Hofstede scores: 64 on both Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. Hofstede proposes that the basis for the high PD score is different from the high score in the Arab world in quality. While it means that there is very unequal distribution of power and wealth in both societies, in Thailand, “This condition is not necessarily forced upon the population, but rather accepted by the society as a part of their cultural heritage” (Hofstede 2005). Moreover, “The ranking of 64 is slightly lower than the Asian average of 71” (Hofstede 2005). In being risk averse, Thailand ranks “slightly higher than the Asian average of 58″ (Hofstede 2005).
Thailand’s lowest score is in Individualism, 20. The society is Collectivist as compared to Individualist (Australia).
Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group,” (Hofstede 2005), a factor which could also have a great effect on learning styles.
Thailand also has the lowest Masculinity score of the Asian nations studied: 34. The Asian average is 53 and the world average is 50. This, too, might have a significant effect on learning styles, being “indicative of a society with less assertiveness and competitiveness, as compared to one where these values are considered more important and significant. This situation also reinforces more traditional male and female roles within the population” (Hofstede 2005).
Finally, Thailand’s religion is Buddhism, practiced by 95%, and requiring members to lead a “moral life, being mindful and aware of thoughts and actions, and developing wisdom and understanding” (Hofstede 2005), attain with major potential impact on learning styles. (The rest of Asia tends to practice Buddhism, Confucianism, Shintoism, Taoism, Hinduism and their close relatives: all of these religions are seen as more pacifist than Islam, and even than Christianity.)
Amazingly enough, this factor allows Thailand and similar Asian nations to have a close correlation with the majority of the European Catholic countries, which are also able to withstand a great deal of uncertainty (Hofstede 2005).
A sign of resistance to accepting the new culture
From an analysis of the Hofstede material, it would seem that the Arab learners would have a more difficult time accepting the less authoritarian teaching styles of Australia and the greater demand for self-direction inherent in the teaching and learning styles of a highly Individual society. That can invite resistance. Mitchell (2000) examined the use of indigenous languages in rap music in “Zimbabwe, Switzerland, France, Italy, and Aotearoa/New Zealand” (arguably similar to Australia) and found that there were “resistance vernaculars” intended to re-territorialize use of language to conform to their home country expectations.
Factors involved in accepting the new culture
Positive psychological states are necessary for effective learning no matter what cultural styles a person brings to educational tasks. In that regard, “theory and research on acculturation suggest the importance of adaptation to the new society. The literature has generally shown integration, that is, simultaneous ethnic retention and adaptation to the new society, to be the most adaptive mode of acculturation and the most conducive to immigrants’ well-being, whereas marginalization is the worst”…and “(with regard to identity, positive psychological outcomes for immigrants are expected to be related to a strong identification with both their ethnic group and the larger society” (Phinney et al. 2001).
Again, regardless of specific learning styles, Hosen et al. (2002) found that “Adaptive human learning involves self-instruction and individually determined self-education…. Useful learning is imparted through the right kind of socialization, formal education, informal and incidental learning, and psychotherapy. In each domain the function of external instruction is to foreclose dysfunctional options.” They conclude that “A merger of formal and informal instruction and learning is probably becoming indispensable to the acquisition of functional beliefs capable of promoting human happiness,” which would argue against success in cultures that have low ID scores and high PD scores, both of the cultures considered here.
The importance of culture on learning styles literature review did not discover any studies that compared success rates achieved by students with learning styles congruent with their cultures. Several studies did, however, asses achievement depending on a variety of other factors assumed to be present in homogeneous cultural settings. One study found that males at different institutions of higher learning scored higher on Deep Processing and lower on Methodical study than female students (Clump & Skogsberg 2003). This would suggest that for students from societies with a high Masculinity rating, male students would be more likely to employ a Deep Processing style of learning; Arab counties score very high on Hofstede’s Masculinity scale. On the other hand, Asians score quite low, suggesting that males from that culture would not employ Deep Processing more often or more successfully than females.
Moreover, at the college level, studies suggest success depends on individual learning styles; however, these are bound to be based in cultural norms. In a study of African-American students and Caucasian students, however, no significant differences in learning styles were discovered (Clump & Skogsberg 2003). This may not correlate well with a discussion of Asian and Arab students in Australia simply because, despite a foreign origin, the immigration of Africans to the United States is several centuries in the past and it may be assumed that major cultural attributes are shared between those groups in a way cultural attributes are not shared between Australians and Arab immigrants or Asian immigrants.
Arab-Australian learning styles
The few studies that have specifically addressed Arab learning styles in an English-speaking culture dealt with Arabs in the United States. However, in light of the similarities between Australian and American Hofstede scores, the findings can be instructive for Australian educators.
For instance, in the U.S., Arab clients of one counseling firm “who present as dependent, indecisive, or nonverbal emotionally may be labeled as ‘resistant (Karmo, 2001) because they do not exhibit behaviors valued by mainstream U.S. society” (Nassar-McMillan & Larson 2003), a result that might also be seen in Australia. Another psychological finding that may have impact on learning styles of Arab students in Australia is that “Because of the role of fate in the teachings of Islam, Arab-Americans are thought to be survival-oriented rather than insight-oriented. Some authors suggest that therapies focused on insight tend to be ineffective and counterproductive with this population and can be highly anxiety provoking because of the conflicts between individual vs. collective forces” (Nassar-McMillan & Lawson 2003). Just so, demanding intuitive, rather than rules-based, responses from students might have a similar effect, for example. It was also noted in the American study that even Arabs who had become Christian would tend to hold some of the Islamic Arab attitudes in various settings (Nassar-McMillan & Lawson 2003). They also noted that the cultural expectation that women would play subordinate roles, especially in public, could contribute to the need for a different approach to therapy (Nassar-McMillan & Lawson 2003); likewise, it could make it difficult to even assess a learning style in the female students.
A study that specifically compared the learning styles of Australian, Colombian, German and Palestinian adolescents found, not surprisingly, that Arab students, when in academic difficulties, sought spiritual support at a much higher rate than did either Australian or German students, but that they also had more active coping strategies of which that was just one part (Frydenberg & O’Mullane 2000). However, they also noted that Australians — consistent with Hofstede’s assessment of the culture — employ relaxing diversions and physical pursuits significantly more often than the Palestinian students when having learning difficulties (Frydenberg & O’Mullane 2000).
While it is not a learning style per se, research also suggests that clear infrastructure and strong institutional support for faculty are helpful in teaching groups of Arab students (Saunders & Quirke 2002).
Asian learning styles
In the mid-1880s, “six Indian ‘coolies’… had absconded from their master’s farmhouse tried haplessly to explain to the magistrate the reason for their desperate action, which had to do with their moral commitment to vegetarianism” (Bilimoria, 1995). While these days, no one would try to force Indians in Australia to eat meat, as happened then, there are still differences in culture and thus in learning styles between Asians and Australians. One of the biggest problems, however, in using learning styles is in deciphering whether trouble learning is caused by culture or learning disabilities (Rohl & Rivilland 2002). Fortunately, Australia is less apt to label immigrant, or even native-born, children as learning disabled than is the United States; in the case of an Asian boy called Yung, the authors note that the staff decided their teaching style was appropriate and that Yung simply needed more intensive ESL work than some other students to achieve the same milestones (Rohl & Rivilland 2002).
Dart et al. (2000) noted that the preferred learning style of many Japanese and Chinese students relied on a belief that “understanding may result from memorization” and that, particularly for Southeast Asian students, memorization is associated with deep approaches to learning.
Zhenhui (2001) found that typical learning styles in East Asian countries, which are probably brought along to Australia, are introverted. East Asian students see knowledge “as something to be transmitted by the teacher rather than discovered by the learners. They, therefore, find it normal to engage in modes of learning which are teacher-centered and in which they receive knowledge rather than interpret it.” This confirms the memorization approach, as well. Asians speak significantly les sin class than Anglo students (36.5% against 63.5%); they dislike overt expression of opinion or emotion, and they highly prefer listening. They prefer not to be touched in public (Zhenhui 2001).
Consistent with the Hofstede characterization of the culture, Zhenhui (2001) found that “These closure-oriented students dislike ambiguity, uncertainty or fuzziness…. Many Asian students, according to Sue and Kirk (1972), are less autonomous, more dependent on authority figures and more obedient and conforming to rules and deadlines.” This discomfort with ambiguity extends even to multiple choice questions; Japanese students, particularly, do not like them (Zhenhui 2001).
Pacino & Pacino (1996) noted that in a global environment, it is necessary for responsible educators to “continue to search for teaching strategies and resources that promote acceptance of cultural diversity and reflect the learning styles of this student population.” One of the strategies they identified that can apply across all cultures is requiring students to enroll in a course on cultural awareness. Pacino & Pacino (1996) note:
In this course, students identify cultural barriers in terms of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, language, religion and gender differences. They also examine societal issues that impact the classroom, such as racism, prejudice and discrimination. Through reflective thinking and problem solving, students begin to develop strategies for effective multicultural instruction in a pluralistic democracy.
The authors noted that students often find, even in these settings, that it is difficult to express feelings and attitudes about other cultures, but that role-playing, simulations and case studies were found to be helpful in bridging that gap (Pacino & Pacino 1996).
Similarly, school administrators make use of a similar course, Administration of Education in a Multicultural Environment, to implement appropriate courses in their districts.
Interactive media was also found to be a valuable teaching tool because it could conform to the student’s requirements, in large part, to deliver the required information (Pacino & Pacino 1996).
Work concerning interactive media and videotapes in ESL instruction confirmed Pacino & Pacino’s findings. Al-Mekhalfi (2001) found that “learners are more likely to benefit from comprehensible input when they feel happy and safe. Conversely, when students are not content with the learning situation, they will not progress even if the teacher provides abundant comprehensible input.” Arguably, this would be true across all learning styles.
Additionally, however, knowing the Hofstede cultural descriptors can be helpful to classroom teachers. Awareness to the cultural norms in which the students act and react can prevent instructors from over-reacting or reacting inappropriately. Perhaps the best praactice is that noted by Al-Mehkhalfi: students can learn better, no matter what their cultural background, if they feel happy and safe, and the teacher, whether in an authoritarian or less authoritarian setting has a great deal of control over that aspect of education.
Australia is a highly individual nation with a great deal of tolerance for ambiguity. Its citizens do not desire the sort of authoritarian government and other authorities Hofstede notes are the norm in both Asian and Arab societies. Asian and Arab students, therefore, will require more structure than Australian students. In addition, they may seek more definitive instruction and judgment of their work. As products of collective societies, they may also prefer to be considered one of a group and will not as readily push themselves forward to seek information as will Australian students.
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers’ preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
Bouma, G.D. (1995). The emergence of religious plurality in Australia: a multicultural society. Sociology of Religion, 56(3), 285-302.
Clump, M.A., & Skogsberg, K. (2003). Differences in learning styles of college students attending similar universities in different geographic locations. College Student Journal, 37(4), 501+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Dart, B.C., Burnett, P.C., Purdie, N., Boulton-Lewis, G., Campbell, J., & Smith, D. (2000). Students’ conceptions of learning, the classroom environment, and approaches to learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 93(4), 262. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Frydenberg, E., & O’Mullane, A. (2000). Nurturing talent in the Australian context: A reflective approach. Roeper Review, 22(2), 78. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Hofstede, G. (1998). A case for comparing apples with oranges: International differences in values. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 39(1), 16+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Hosen, R., Solovey-Hosen, D., & Stern, L. (2002). The acquisition of beliefs that promote subjective well-being. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(4), 231+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Martin, J.N., & Nakayama, T.K. (1999). Thinking dialectically about culture and communication. Communication Theory, 9(1), 1-25.
Mitchell, T. (2000). Doin’ damage in my native language: The use of “Resistance Vernaculars” in Hip Hop in France, Italy, and Aotearoa/New Zealand. Popular Music and Society, 24(3), 41+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Nassar-McMillan, S.C., & Hakim-Larson, J. (2003). Counseling considerations among Arab-Americans. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81(2), 150+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Pacino, M.A., & Pacino, J.L. (1996). Multimedia and cultural diversity THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 23(6), 70+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Phinney, J.S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: An Interactional Perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 493+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Rohl, M., & Rivalland, J. (2002). Literacy learning difficulties in Australian primary schools: Who are the children identified and how do their schools and teachers support them?. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 25(3), 19+. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Saunders, B. & Quirke, P. (2002) “Let my laptop lead the way”: A Middle Eastern study. Thesis. Retrieved January 30, 2005 at http://www.ifets.info/others/journals/5_1/saunders.html
Thailand. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_thailand.shtml
Yee, S. (1996). Ethnic enclaves as teaching and learning sites. Social Studies, 87(1), 13-17.
Zhenhui, Rao. (2001, July). Matching teaching styles with learning styles in East Asian contexts. The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved January 30, 1005 at http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Zhenhui-TeachingStyles.html
Hofstede did not include Roman Catholicism in his Christianity figures; arguably, therefore, the Judeo-Christian rubric underlies Australia to an even greater extent than the Christianity figures imply.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.