Culturally Competent Nursing health care


There have been different definitions of culture by different scholars and in different models but according to the Purnell model culture is defined as the totality of socially transmitted lifeways, customs, values, beliefs, art, behavioral patterns, and all the other human work products and thought characteristics of people that are the guide to decision making and worldview (Purnell, 2002). The patterns may be implicit or explicit, are emergent phenomena that change depending on the global phenomena, are shared by most members of a culture, and are primarily learned and transmitted within the family. The Purnell model is a circle containing the outer circle which is a representation of the global society. The global society is composed of world politics and communication, warfare and conflicts among others.  The second ring of the model is the community defined as a group of people with the same identity or interest and habiting a known locality. The third ring of the model represents the family. The model has a fourth ring which represents a person. In accordance with the model, a person is defined as a constantly adapting biopsychosociocultural human being. From the ring containing the person are 12 cultural concepts and domains represented by wedges. One of the 12 wedges is composed of healthcare practices (Purnell, & Paulanka, 2003). Apart from the healthcare practice wedge, there are other wedges that are vital in gaining an insight into the health practices of a patient.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Culturally Competent Nursing health care
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

The healthcare practice is focused on health care. It entails information on the type of treatment that culture seeks, beliefs in healthcare, traditional practices, the health responsibility at the personal level, self-medication practices, how the culture perceives some health practices such as rehabilitation, mental illness, or organ donation. The healthcare practice also contains information on the role of the sick, barriers to health practices, and how pain is expressed.

I conducted an interview with a patient had been a Chinese resident but currently resided in the U.S. The patient was in the U.S. to further his education in economics and statistics. The interviewee availed information that was informative in understanding some of the health practices in China. According to my interviewee, according to their culture health is maintained through a balance between hot (Yang) and cold (Yin). The lack of “Chi” (energy) results in illness. They perceive the body as a gift that must be given a prioritized value through care.

The Chinese focus more on preventive treatment compared to acute treatment; most medicines taken are medicines of prevention. The interviewee described their medicine as an “acupuncturist”. The process of taking the medicines is comprehensive and extremely thorough. The interviewee gave an example of a headache stating that when one complains of a headache the treatment is not focused solely on the headache but rather the entire body in all its aspects. The interviewee defended her statement stating that a headache is only a symptom and the treatment should be focused on the main cause. The body is perceived as a whole and any alteration call for a treatment focused on the entire body. In the event, there are multiple symptoms the treatment is dependent on the symptom severity. If a patient has acute symptoms and that result in distress the initial treatment focuses on the symptom elimination following which is the root cause treatment.

According to the interviewee, their traditional healing is divisible into two parts; secular and sacred folk healing. The value of folk healers is slowly diminishing and they are only consulted in some medical conditions by a very limited number. Most of the folk healers are found in Taiwan and Hong Kong, the interviewee comes from Taiwan. The sacred folk healing encompasses a wide assortment of religious experts including temple base spiritual ritual specialists, interpreter of fortunes, various spirit mediums, magicians and Taoist priests and Shamans (wu). The folk healers are only present in some remote areas and do not practice their healing within the cities. Though these healers exist, the current medicine has taken a hold of the means of handling illnesses in China, the folk healers receive little consultations from the residents. The interviewee stated that the secular folk medicine has taken a different approach in the modern China. The secular folk medical practices included martial art conducted for health purposes, itinerant herbalists who are mostly illiterate and practice empiric herbal tradition that is currently overcome by the modern medicine. Some of the secular folk healers have been retrained to be the modern health care providers while most seem to have withered away. Though the Folk healers are limited in number, there exists people who consul them. one of the key treatment that the folk healers are well renown for is a practice referred to as scrapping. Scrapping entails the use of pieces of smooth stones, horns, animal tusk, bone or smooth jade to scrap along the skin in an effort to release toxins and obstructions that are trapped on the skin surface.

There were numerous traditional healthcare practices that the interviewee describes. One of the practices was a type of massage that entailed the placing of several plastic or glass “cups” on the body. This practice is referred to as capping (a type of massage). The other traditional health practice was the use of herbs which can come from different seeds, leaves, flower, stem, or roots. One of the traditional herbs that is currently widely used is the ginseng. The Chinese also use the practice of needle insertion into the muscles, subcutaneous tissues and superficial skin at particular acupuncture points and manipulate them (acupuncture). There is a belief that acupuncture helps in keeping a balance between “yin” and “yang” thus allowing the flow of “Qi” which is essential in the restoration of health to the body and the mind (Mervak, Kalinowski, & Gupta, 2011). Other applicable traditional health practices include moxibustion and the Tui Na Massage.

In China, the human body is perceived as a sacred being and a gift, therefore, some medical procedures such as surgeries or organ donation can be refuted. For them, it is best to die with body intact. They also believe in reincarnation.

There are various communication patterns in China that affect healthcare provision. A case in point is starring too much into a persons’ eye which is perceived as a sign of disrespect. Too much physical contact is not acceptable. The elderly in the Chinese culture is highly respected and their opinions in an access to care may impact the care approach an individual takes. Some of the other health barriers for people include communication barriers. According to the interviewee the dominant language in china is Standard Mandarin which makes it difficult for non-English Chinese to access care from regions where English is the only language used in care provision. The other challenge to care provision was the negative perception by some of the China residents on the western treatment. The western medicines are not entirely welcomes in china and in addition to this the traditional medicines are highly valued in China. In china emotions are often hidden, a smile may be an indicator of lack of comprehension rather than agreement. This may affect the manner in which a healthcare provider attends to a patient (Snowden, & Yamada, 2005). The Chinese diet has a positive contribution to an individuals’ health. Most of their diet is composed of vegetables, meat, seafood and rice. The Chinese prefer home cooking and meals may be availed to a sick patient particularly soup which is believed to clean the system.

There are health conditions that are highly stigmatized and those suffering from them highly discriminated upon. Among the most challenging health aspects in China are the mental health. The issue of mental health is rarely openly talked about and seeking medical assistance from such an illness becomes a problem. Those with mental problems are avoided or rejected and sadly in some cases by those close to them. The interviewee stated that the stigmatization associated with mental illness is a universal phenomenon and she believed that it is in the same margin as the case in China only that the mental illness perception is different in China. In China, any cognitive impairment is associated with psychoses and there is a belief by most China residents that psychological problems like anxiety and depression can be healed without treatment. There are few people that visit mental health centers with the heightened belief that it is not a health condition. Additionally, the interviewee stated that some health conditions such as mental health are influenced by family emphasis as well as Confucian philosophy. She stated that their culture focuses more on social goals and personal duties rather than personal and individual rights; the failure of fulfilling an individual’ duties at societal or family level can result in a feeling of shame or guilt or to some extent mental health problems.





Mervak, B., Kalinowski, A., & Gupta, M. (2011). Acupuncture in China. Southern Medical Journal98(3), 310-337.

Purnell, L. (2002). The Purnell model for cultural competence. Journal of transcultural nursing13(3), 193-196.

Purnell, L. D., & Paulanka, B. J. (2003). The Purnell model for cultural competence. Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach2, 8-39.

Snowden, L. R., & Yamada, A. M. (2005). Cultural differences in access to care. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol.1, 143-166.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!

order custom essay paper