Child Development and Learning
Child development is the psychological, biological and emotional changes which occur in human beings from birth till when adolescence ends as the individual progresses from being dependent to a state of increased autonomy. Child development is influenced by genetic factors and prenatal events. There are several theories of child development that have been put forth by different people. The first of the two major theories is the theory of cognitive development which was put forth by a Swiss theorist. The second is the theory of cultural-historical psychology which was put forth by Lev Vygotsky who was a Russian theorist. There are also other theories of child development such as Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and the behaviorism theory by John B. Watson. All these theories attempt to explain the processes of child development and the factors that influence the process.
Piaget’s cognitive development theory
The child development theory that was put forth by Piaget talks about the nature and the development of human intelligence. It is also referred to as a developmental stage theory, however, it deals with the nature of knowledge and how humans acquire, construct and use it. Piaget also claims that at the center of the human being is cognitive development and that language is dependent on the person’s cognitive development DeVries, 1997()
Piaget showed that there is a link between behavior and cognitive development. He stated that for human beings to be able to adapt to their environment, they need to have a way of organizing their ideas. He continued to posit that children have different ways of seeing the world as it grows and as it changes along the changes happening in their biological bodies. Children begin their interaction with the world when the organize ideas into groups. This is similar to the reflexes which animals have and which they use to adapt to their physical environment. However, these human schemes go beyond these reflexes of animals and they involve the independent cognitive abilities of each person DeVries, 1997()
The theory also explains the processes of assimilation and accommodation. Piaget stated that intelligence is an evolutionary adaptation and that all human beings need to adapt to the environment. The strategies through which the human beings adapt to the environment are assimilation and accommodation. Piaget says that assimilation is the process of transformation of the environment for it to be fit for the preexisting cognitive schemes. A good example is how an infant knows how to such from a large bottle by sucking on a smaller one. Accommodation, on the contrary, refers to the changes that the person does in order to accept the environment DeVries, 1997()
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is organized in stages. These stages are based on biological development of the individual and Piaget believed that the chronological stages which one has to follow for mental development are also related to development and growth of the brain. The four stages of Piaget’s theory are the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage and lastly the formal operational stage Smith, 1985()
Vygotsky’s theory of social development
The theory of social development that was put forth by Vygotsky is also known as the cultural-historical psychology theory. The theory is gives a foundation of constructivism. It has three major themes. The theory plays a huge role in the cognitive development process and it states that social learning comes before development. Vygotsky stated that “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” Roth & Lee, 2007.
The second theme is that of the more knowledgeable other (MKO). This refers to anyone who has a better understanding than the learner or has a higher ability level. This is in respect to a particular task, concept or process. The MKO is the one who is the teacher to the learner. The third theme is that of the ZPD (zone of proximal development). This is how much distance there is between the ability of the learner or student to perform a particular task under the guidance of an adult and their collaboration with their peers and the ability of the student to independently solve the problem Holland & Valsiner, 1988()
Vygotsky believed that child development consisted of a series of periods of stable development starting from infancy to early childhood then to the preschool age, to school age and lastly to puberty. Vygotsky also stated that there is periodization which essentially depends on the occurrence of specific structural transformation in the relation of the child to their social environment which also correspondents to the development of the child’s mental life Holland & Valsiner, 1988()
Comparison and contrast of the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky
Piaget viewed cognitive development from a biological standpoint where he believed that intelligence comes from the human being’s ability to adapt to their environment and to organize themselves accordingly. Piaget also believed that children organize ideas into groups which he referred to as schemes and he continued to assert that it is through these schemes that children learn to assimilate or accommodate information. Assimilation is for new information and accommodation is for information that already existed but does not fit into the existing scheme. Vygotsky’s theory, on the other hand, talks of cognitive development as the process through which children internalize information about their world by first learning and understanding a language. Vygotsky stated that social interaction of the children is the major force that drives development. According to Vygotsky, as a child hears a language, he/she learns to imitate that language till it becomes internalized in them. This is what then leads to cognitive development as the language becomes speech.
Looking at how the two theorists view the progression of development, we see that Piaget believes that development comes before learning. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that development begins with the socialization of the individual which then leads to acquisition of language and lastly leads to developmental learning. According to Piage, the child’s learning starts from a self-centered position and it develops on their own accord as it moves from the child to the social world as the child continues to develop.
Piaget’s theory uses stages to model the process of development and show the connection between the biological and cognitive development of a child. The core belief that Piaget has is that growth of the brain relates to the chronological development of the person and it underscores the biological connection. Vygotsky, on the contrary, proposed that children need to first construct their knowledge from social interactions. He also stated that learning promotes development and that language is a major facilitator of social development and learning.
Application of the theories to education of children with disabilities
The two theories of Piaget and Vygotsky can be applied to the society and especially in the education of disabled children. Vygotsky’s theory was inspired by special education in the U.S.S.R. And this is also the foundation for its application to special education. To apply Vygotsky’s theory, there is a need to have an understanding of the disability and its socio-cultural aspect. For example in a child who is suffering from blindness, when applying Vygotsky’s theory, it therefore goes that we should look at the conflict that arise when the blind child is entering into school life and not to look at the blindness itself. Blindness is a primary disability since it is an impairment of the child’s biological condition.
According to Vygotsky, it is also important to look at how the impairment affects to social development of the child since according to his theory, social interaction precedes development Das, 1999.
Therefore, the child must be provided with the necessary knowledge and experiences for them to develop. Vygotsky’s theory has been the foundation of the concept of inclusion whereby children with disabilities are allowed to learn in the general education environment Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996()
Piaget’s theory can also be applied to the education of a child with disabilities. When applying Piaget’s theory, the teacher needs to help the disabled individual to construct their own knowledge. In other words, there is the realization that even though the child is disabled physically, they need to adapt to their immediate environment in order for the child to develop Roach & Elliott, 2006()
The teacher must thus create, assess and implement a curriculum which is inclusive for the children with disabilities. This includes assisting the disabled child to think in an abstract manner, to handle problem-solving, to plan and to organize their ideas. Even for a blind child, they need to be assisted by being provided with opportunities to recognize their differences and similarities with the other students and that this will help them to adapt Glidden, 2000()
Piaget’s theory also includes the acceptance of individual differences between the students. These differences are the ones which bring about differences in the progress of development of the children. The theory makes an assumption that children go through the same sequence of development though at different rates Lyon, 1996.
Therefore, teachers must make special efforts to arrange their classroom activities to accommodate the disabled children who may not be able to develop as fast as the others. For example, for the blind child, they should be provided with audio books and given longer time to complete assignments or even given fewer assignments to complete.
Das, J.P. (1999). Some Thoughts on Two Aspects of Vygotsky’s Work. Educational Psychologist, 30(2), 93-99.
DeVries, R. (1997). Piaget’s Social Theory. Educational Researcher, 26(2), 4-17.
Glidden, L.M. (2000). Adopting Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Long-Term Perspective. Family Relations, 49(4), 397-405.
Holland, D.C., & Valsiner, J. (1988). Cognition, Symbols, and Vygotsky’s Developmental Psychology. Ethos, 16(3), 247-272.
Lyon, G.R. (1996). Learning Disabilities. The Future of Children, 6(1), 54-76.
Roach, A.T., & Elliott, S.N. (2006). The Influence of Access to General Education Curriculum on Alternate Assessment Performance of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28(2), 181-194.
Roth, W.-M., & Lee, Y.-J. (2007). “Vygotsky’s Neglected Legacy”: Cultural-Historical Activity Theory. Review of Educational Research, 77(2), 186-232.
Smith, L. (1985). Making Educational Sense of Piaget’s Psychology. Oxford Review of Education, 11(2), 181-191.
Terman, D.L., Larner, M.B., Stevenson, C.S., & Behrman, R.E. (1996). Special Education for Students with Disabilities: Analysis and Recommendations. The Future of Children, 6(1), 4-24.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.